Topic catalogues

Topic catalogues list all of our reports published within each topic area / category with abstract and price. Please select a category to download the catalogue.


UKWIR maintains and is constantly adding to, an extensive library of reports which are deliverables from our research programme. Reports Catalogues are created to illustrate the reports that have been produced in each of UKWIR's research topic areas. These reports are freely available to UKWIR subscribers and they may be purchased from the UKWIR website by non-subscribers



Data Services

A sampling and analysis programme to determine the concentration of radon in water samples

Ref: 17/TX/01/38            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 827 0

The objective was to develop a sampling and analysis programme to determine the range of concentrations of radon in public water supplies. The study focussed on sampling groundwater sites that had previously been classified as being of medium and high Hazard potential of containing radon in water. Over 300 samples were analysed from 124 England and Wales public water groundwater supplies with the majority from sites classified as medium radon hazard. Most of the sites classified as High Hazard sites were also sampled. All samples were recorded as having radon concentrations below 100 Bq/L-1 with the vast majority below 50 Bq/L-1. The low concentrations of radon found in samples from public water supplies provide some reassurance for public health protection.

Direct Toxicity Assessment

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme Technical Guidance

Ref: 00/TX/02/07            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 229 9

This Technical Guidance describes a sequence of seven steps recounting the identification of suitable sites for DTA investigation, identification of discharges requiring toxicity reduction, approaches to toxicity reduction, and monitoring the effectiveness of these measures. A series of flow charts sets out the steps involved and the key decision points while the accompanying text provides supporting technical detail and worked examples where appropriate. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD WITH THE DIFFERENCE

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme Recommendations from the Steering Group to the Environmental Regulators

Ref: 00/TX/02/06            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 228 0

This report brings together the experience gained from a wide ranging demonstration programme designed to examine the practicalities of using whole effluent ecotoxicity tests to assess and control the quality of complex effluents released from industrial sources and sewage treatment works. It does not attempt to determine the cost of implementing such an approach. The immediate aim was to trial methodologies that can predict effects on the survival, growth and development of aquatic organisms and help control them. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD WITH THE DIFFERENCE

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme Review of Toxicity ReductionEvaluations at Sewage Treatment Works

Ref: 00/TX/02/05            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 226 4

As part of a trial of a DTA approach in the UK a second element of a case study was study carried out on a 5.5 km reach of the Lower Tees estuary, a The River Esk and Lower Tees Estuary DTA case studies have involved the conduct of toxicity reduction exercises at small and complex STW respectively to provide information for the development of good practice. However, it was also considered valuable to review the literature data on toxicity reduction exercises at sewage treatment works worldwide. It was evident from the data considered that the most appropriate procedure for a particular site needs to be identified and applied rather than using the techniques in a mechanistic manner. A site- specific programme needs to assesses the variability in final effluent ecotoxicity as well as that of the toxic inputs to the sewage treatment works. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD 

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme Lower Tees EstuaryDemonstration Project ? Part II

Ref: 00/TX/02/04            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 225 6

As part of a trial of a DTA approach in the UK a second element of a case study was study carried out on a 5.5 km reach of the Lower Tees estuary, a location where there was a history of poor receiving water quality. The study was designed to carry out a toxicity reduction evaluation (TRE) exercise on a complex discharge that is known to contribute significant ecotoxicity to a receiving water environment. The study was successful in applying toxicity tracking and toxicity identification evaluation procedures to an effluent treatment works and discharge in its associated sewer network. The learning points and recommendations from the case study will be used in the development of Technical Guidance. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD WITH THE DIFFERENCE

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme Lower Tees EstuaryDemonstration Project ? Part I

Ref: 00/TX/02/03            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 224 8

As part of a trial of a DTA approach in the UK a case study was study carried out on a 5.5 km reach of the Lower Tees estuary, a location where there was a history of poor receiving water quality. The project was designed to evaluate selected elements of a proposed DTA protocol, short- term (largely lethal) ecotoxicity tests and associated procedures for effluent control in an estuarine/ marine catchment. The results showed that a number of discharges to the estuary showed evidence of short- term (largely lethal) ecotoxicity and that the test methods used could also detect varying levels of effects in receiving water samples taken in discharge plumes. The learning points and recommendations from the case study will be used in the development of Technical Guidance. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD WITH THE DIFFERENCE

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme River Esk Project

Ref: 00/TX/02/02            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 223 X

As part of a trial of a DTA approach in the UK a case study was study carried out on the River Esk between Langholm and Canonbie (Dumfrieshire), a location where pesticides were believed to be affecting receiving water quality. The project was designed to evaluate selected elements of a proposed DTA protocol, short- term (largely lethal) ecotoxicity tests and associated procedures for effluent control in a freshwater catchment. The results showed limited evidence of short- term (largely lethal) ecotoxicity in the Esk even though the Langholm STW final effluent showed ecotoxicity when traders were discharging. Risk assessments of the final effluent provided conclusions consistent with the receiving water data. The learning points and recommendations from the case study will be used in the development of Technical Guidance. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD WITH THE DIFFERENC

UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme River Aire Project

Ref: 00/TX/02/01            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 219 1

Chemical and ecotoxicological testing of river water and direct discharges has been undertaken throughout an 11km stretch of the River Aire, as part of Phase II of the UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme. The study has demonstrated the application of Stages 1 and 2 of the proposed DTA protocol and the results are presented here. Important lessons have been learnt, which will benefit the wider use of these methods in the future. WE OFFER 7 REPORTS (00/TX/02/01,2,3,4,5,6,7) THROUGH OUR WEBSITE FOR A TOTAL OF £400. THE WEBSITE WILL PROCESS YOUR ORDER AT FULL PRICE AND THEN REFUND YOUR CREDIT CARD WITH THE DIFFERENCE

Disinfection By-Products

Identification of treatment conditions which minimise DBP formation - version 2

Ref: 20/TX/05/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-892-8

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed from the reaction between an oxidative disinfectant (such as chlorine or ozone), and organic and inorganic precursor compounds, usually natural organic matter or bromide ions. This research sought to determine the relative importance of different DBPs and the factors that influence their formation, with the objective of developing a practical guide to assist water companies in managing DBPs. This was achieved through a literature review of toxicity data to establish a ranked list of priority DBPs. Extensive laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the influence of different treatment processes on precursor removal across five different chemical groups of DBPs (21 individual compounds) for different types of water source. Samples were also taken across drinking water treatment works to validate the laboratory results. The toxicity data was used to assess potential risk (the hazard index) and the relative importance of DBPs shown to change for different water sources and treatment processes. A limited number of DBPs were dominant in the overall assessment of hazard index. These were principally the haloacetic acids, specifically those that incorporated bromide into their structure. However, when present, the nitrogenous DBPs were also important. Guidance was developed on the operation of different treatment processes for minimisation of the priority DBPs.

Disinfection By-Product Risk Assessment: DBPs of Concern

Ref: 14/TX/05/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 704 5

The disinfection by-product (DBP) rule requires water companies to keep DBPs in drinking water as low as possible without compromising the effectiveness of disinfection. In the UK, emphasis has been on the regulated DBPs, mainly the trihalomethanes (THMs), but other DBPs must not be present at concentrations that constitute a potential danger to human health. 

The large number of known DBPs makes measurement impractical, if not impossible. Accordingly, a pragmatic risk-based approach to identify potential DBPs has been developed, based on knowledge of factors which lead to their formation and mitigation. DBPs have been categorised according to their chemical structures and the potential risks for these categories, based on toxicity, likely occurrence and concentration.

This approach has been encapsulated in a spreadsheet-based risk assessment tool that enables the potential formation of DBPs at treatment works to be quickly assessed, and the works to be ranked according to the risk.

Modelling the Formation of Disinfection By- products: A Feasibility Study

Ref: 95/DW/05/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 050 4

This report studies the feasibility of producing a model to describe the formation of disinfection by- products (DBPs) during water treatment and disinfection. It provides an understanding of the applicability of existing models and the likely effort required to produce improved models. The report also assesses whether the production of such a model would be likely to provide a significant benefit. At present there is no model available that will adequately describe the formation of a broad range of DBPs over a sufficient range of water treatment plans to provide a sophisticated tool.

The Mechanism of Toxicity of Bromate and Chlorate - An Interim Report

Ref: 95/DW/05/6            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 049 0

The report describes the intended research to further investigate the mechanism of carcinogenity of bromate, and to compare the effects of chlorate and bromate in two test species, rat and mouse. Bromate has been shown to cause kidney and thyroid tumours in rats. It has also been shown to induce tumours of the lining of the body cavity (peritoneal mesotheliomas), these tumours being very rare in rats. It has been shown to cause DNA damage in a variety of tests. The studies considered suitable by this interim report are: The comet assay, which detects strand breaks in the DNA using a fluorescence method; Liquid peroxidation, investigated by the formation of 8- hydrodeoxyguanosine (8- OHdG) in the kidneys of both rats and mice, considered to be a market of oxidative damage; Supplementary in vitro studies, carried out for bromate only and intended to further elucidate the mechanism of action of bromate.

Bromate from the use of Chlorine in Water Treatment

Ref: 95/DW/05/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 047 4

Work was undertaken to study the concentration of bromate in commercial hypochlorite solutions and the effect of storage time, and to assess the possibility of bromate formation during chlorination. The report concludes that a change from the use of chlorine gas to hypochlorite solutions will result in an increase in bromate concentration in treated water. The chlorine concentration of a stored hypochlorite solution decreases with time whereas the bromate concentration stays relatively constant. Therefore, the yse of hypochlorite solutions stored for prolonged periods will increase the likelihood of exceeding the WHO GV of 25 ug 1 - 1. If a lower bromate standard (e. g. 3 ug 1- 1) were set, then does of commercial hypochlorite of ,1mg 1- 1 could result in the limit being exceeded.

Review of the Mechanisms of Toxicity and Current Legislation of Chlorate and Chlorite

Ref: 95/DW/05/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 045 8

Work was undertaken to update the water industry on any developments concerning the regulation of disinfection by- products chlorite and chlorate. The report outlines the mechanisms of toxicity of chlorine dioxide, chlorate and chlorite, identifies gaps in current knowledge and suggests further research which could clarify the situation. The work was undertaken due to concerns over the storage of chlorine gas and the move to safer means of generating chlorine for drinking water disinfection.

Trichloroacetaldehyde in Water Supplies

Ref: 95/DW/05/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 044 X

The objective of this work was to survey trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL) concentrations in final waters from a selection of water treatment works acrtoss the UK. The selection covered a wide range of raw water types and treatment conditions. The results were compared to the provisional WHO guideline of 10 ug/ 1 in order to determine whether this value is likely to be exceeded in practice. The survey indicated that TCAL only exceeded the guideline value at a few works, one works exceeded this value by a considerable amount. One resampling at this works the concentration of TCAL was well below the provisional value. No clear explanation was obtained for these high concentrations of TCAL. In general concentrations were found to be low, with most having concentrations of less than 20% of the provisional guideline value. It was therefore considered that TCAL concentrations would not be aproblem for most treatment works. A few treatment works may experience concentrations close to or exceeding the guideline level.

Inorganic Disinfection By- Products

Ref: 98/TX/01/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 136 5

As part of the UKWIR toxicology programme, iodate and perchlorate were identified as having broad similarities to other oxyhalide ions such as bromate, chlorate and chorite. Discusses the formation, occurrence and analysis of iodate and perchlorate in groundwater, surface water and following chlorination in water treatment. Iodate showed persistance in the distribution system, but concentrations of perchlorate were found to be very low indeed.

Drinking Water - Other Toxicological Studies

Real-time monitoring of bacteria at water treatment works and in downstream networks

Ref: 21/DW/02/99            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-924-6

The project reviewed current real-time bacteriological monitoring technologies through the literature, research, laboratory and field trials that have recently been carried out, or were in progress, alongside capturing practical experience gained from those using the technologies. The report provides a broad view of the technologies currently available and promising future technologies that are in development. Note that the project focused on bacteria and bacteriological indicators, not other organisms of concern like viruses or protozoa.

Consolidating the information gathered with research into sensor performance, a decision framework was synthesised to guide sensor choice, placement and overall development of a distribution network real-time monitoring system. Gaps in the available technology to were identified.


Ref: 21/DW/02/98            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-918-5

The requirement for improving managing the virological safety of drinking water has prompted renewed interest in the potential application of coliphages for assessing the risks posed by human enteric viruses. Coliphages are a diverse group of viruses that share the ability to infect the faecal indicator bacterium, E. coli and other closely related genera, and are shed in high numbers in faeces. This review was undertaken to examine their ability to indicate the virological quality of source waters and their potential to determine the virus elimination capacity of water treatment works.  Information is presented on various conventional and emerging methods for enumeration of coliphages. The report concludes by considering their suitability within the operational framework for monitoring drinking water quality.   

Precursors of Halophenols and Related Substances and Fate in Distribution

Ref: 98/TX/01/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 124 1

Identifies possible precursors, sources and stability of halophenols and haloanisoles in water. Provides a list of situations that could lead to odour and flavour complaints. Reviews the literature and models the effects of chlorine treatment on these substances and how they might degrade in the distribution system.

Formation and occurrence of Bromophenols, Iodophenols, Bromoanisoles and Iodoanisoles inDrinking Water : An investigation of Taste and Odour Potential

Ref: 96/DW/05/13            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 101 2

Formation and occurrence of Bromophenols, Iodophenols, Bromoanisoles and Iodoanisoles in Drinking Water : An investigation of Taste and Odour Potential

Allergy and Dermatitis Associated with Domestic Water Supplies

Ref: 96/DW/05/14            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 005 9

In recent years there has been an increase in the number of consumers reporting apparent allergic or irritant reactions due to contact with drinking water. This report assesses the relative ability of potential drinking water constituents and contaminants to cause such reactions. A review was conducted based on reports in the literature and on enquiries to the toxicology enquiry service over the past ten years. The report concludes that drinking water is a minor source of contaminants which could cause contact dermatitis compared with other sources such as occupational exposure and food. However, there may be a slight increased risk for a small percentage of the population who are already sensitised to particular substances. In addition, there exists a condition called aquagenic pruritus in which itching can be caused by contact with water without exhibiting observable skin changes.

Treatment Chemicals as Sources of Contamination of Drinking Water

Ref: 96/DW/05/11            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 057 1

Over recent years, there has been concern over an apparent increase in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders, which may be associated with oestrogenic compounds in the environment. In order to assess the likelihood that oestrogenic compounds may be present in drinking water, a range of such compounds was exposed to water treatment processes under laboratory conditions. The compounds assessed were steroids and nonylphenols. These were exposed to chlorination, ozonation, coagulation and powdered activated carbon (PAC). This report presents the results of the laboratory study and provides an indication of the likely effects of water treatment on these compounds.

Bioavailability of Metals from Drinking Water

Ref: 95/DW/05/9            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 052 0

Bioavailability is an issue of concern for the UK Water Industry because it has important implications for the setting of drinking water quality standards and for assessment of potential risks to consumers in case of a contamination incident. This report discusses the concepts and issues concerning bioavailability of metals from different sources of exposure, relates them to the water industry and assesses the state of current knowledge. The report concludes that the current database regarding bioavailability of metals from diet is diverse but not very cohesive, rarely distinguishing between water and food components of the diet. The review did not find universal support for the traditionally held dogma that metals are more available for absorption from water owing to their presence in soluble form. Some metals e. g. iron, are preferentially absorbed from food owing to specifically developed uptake mechanisms to absorb forms primarily found in food. The forms found in drinking water, although soluble, may b

The Impact of Exposure and Toxicity Data on Drinking Water Standards for Boron

Ref: 95/DW/05/8            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 051 2

This report discusses the potential toxicity of boron in relation to exposure via drinking water and the incorporation of the WHO guideline value into standards suitable for drinking water in Europe. Boron is a metalloid widely distributed in the environment and released into surface waters from industrial and domestic effluents. It is an essential micronutrient for the healthy growth of plants and therefore the greatest exposure source for humans is from fruit and vegetables. The EC average dietary intake of boron is in the range 1.64 - 4.54 mg/ day. Studies into the health effects of boron in humans have shown that it does not cause cancer but it has other adverse effects, principally testicular atrophy and possible developmental effects in the foetus. Based on recent exposure data, the report suggests that an allocation of 15 - 20% of the tolerable daily intake used to calculate the WHO guideline value and USEPA (199) health advisory value, to drinking water, could be considered suitable for the assessmen

Human Exposure to PAH from Sources other than Drinking Water

Ref: 95/DW/05/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 048 2

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds which are known to be carcinogenic. This report examines the contributions to total human exposure to PAHs from sources other than drinking water, and compares them with the exposure from drinking water. The report concludes that exposure to PAHs is very variable, according to lifestyle, diet, time of year and location. This makes it difficult to determine the relative contribution which any particular source may make to total exposure. However, food provides by far the largest source of exposure. For most drinking water suppliesm the relative contribution is negligible, (about 1%). For supplies which have elevated PAH levels due to contact with coal- tar pitch linings, drinking water could account for up to two thirds of the daily intake of one PAH, fluoranthene, where contributions from other sources are minimal. Since a high concentration is likely to be transitory in drinking water, the relative contribution is likely to be much lower.

Mechanisms of carcinogenicity of trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE)metabolites

Ref: 98/TX/01/6            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 132 2

The report reviews the literature relating to the carcinogenicity of two widely used chlorinated solvents, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. The weight of evidence indicates that tri- and tetrachloroethene are not genotoxic carcinogens. The use of (NOAEL) and an appropriate safety factor to determine the tolerable daily intake (TDI) is, therefore, the most appropriate that is likely to be safe for humans.

Endocrine Disrupters - Drinking Water

Research Update on Oestrogenic Substances in the Environment

Ref: 98/TX/01/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 128 4

Updates UKWIR 1994 report, Implications of Oestreogenic Substances in the Environment, that examined the hypothesised relationship between oestrogenic substance in the environment and reproductive disorders. Discusses 17b- oestradiol, ethinyl oestradio, phthalates, bisphenol A, alkylphenols and nonylphenols in particular. Incorporates work undertaken world- wide, particularly the Institute of Environmental Health’s Assessment on Environmental Oestrogens and by Brunel University, and discusses the implications.

Steroid Concentration in Treated Sewage Effluents and Water Courses

Ref: 98/TX/01/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 095 4

Reviews and discusses the occurrence of steroids and their conjugates in raw and treated waters and the effectiveness of water treatment processes (chlorination, ozone, PAC, coagulation and filtration, aeration) in removing them. Describes the development and validation of analytical techniques for detecting oestrone, 17B- oestradiol and ethynyl oestradiol and gives the results of monitoring them in drinking waters.

Effect of Water Treatment Processes on Oestrogenic Chemicals

Ref: 96/DW/05/10            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 006 7

Preliminary investigation into the effect, under laboratory conditions, of chlorination, coagulation, ozonation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) on a range of chemicals (steroids and nonylphenols) that have demonstrated oestrogenic activity in laboratory assays. Indicates the likely effects of the various treatments but concludes that confirmation, under a wide range of conditions, requires more extensive investigation.

The Implications of Oestrogenic Substances in the Environment

Ref: 95/DW/05/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 046 6

There is increasing scientific and public concern about the potential effects of oestrogenic compounds in the environment on male reproductive health. Research in the UK has shown that male fish exposed to sewage effluents appear to undergo biochemical changes normally found only in sexually mature females. This has led to public fears regarding possible contamination of drinking water with oestrogens, as a consequence of indirect re- use of water. This report critically reviews the available evidence for a possible link between oestrogenic substances and reproductive disorders and the relevance of these findings to the Water Industry. It concludes that the data are sufficient to require that the subject be taken seriously, but insufficient to suggest that major changes in pollution legislation and control should be precipitated. Recommendations on further research are given.

Removal of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates by Water Treatment Processes

Ref: 98/TX/01/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 131 4

Examines the effect, under laboratory conditions, of aeration, chlorination, ozonisation, coagulation and powdered activated carbon on nonylphenol ethoxylates, a class of compounds, that may have oestrogenic properties. The report makes several preliminary conclusions on their removal, but suggests that further experiments under a wider range of conditions may be required.

Endocrine disrupters (waste waters and sludge)

Assessment of the Performance of Wastewater Treatment Works in Removing Oestrogenic Substances

Ref: 10/TX/04/17            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 562 X

The National Demonstration Programme(NDP) has been established to further an understanding of how current and advanced treatment processes used at wastewater treatment works affect the concentration of certain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This project has undertaken the co-ordination of the NDP investigations, the establishment of quality control procedures for data collection and the interpretation and reporting of the results obtained. The study has shown that, where adequate receiving water dilution is available, EDC removal by conventional nitrifying treatment processes is sufficient to meet tentative predicted no-effect concentrations for the substances of concern. Where adequate dilution is not available, more advanced tratment may be required but this would result in significant additional cost and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Of the three advanced treatment processes investigated (oxidation using ozone or chlorine dioxide, or adsorption using granular activated carbon), the most cost effective was found to be ozone at a dose of 1 mg/l.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals National Demonstration Programme: Assessment of the Performance of WwTW in Removing Oestrogenic Substances

Ref: 09/TX/04/16            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 525 5

The feminisation of wild fish (termed 'intersex') has been associated with elevated concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in some wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents. To further an understanding of how current WwTW processes affect treated effluent EDC concentration, a National Demonstration Programme (NDP), managed by UKWIR, has been undertaken collaboratively by all 10 water and sewerage companies in England and Wales and the Environment Agency.
The NDP consists of two elements; the investigation of new or advances treatment processes aimed at achieving high standards of EDC removal; and the investigation of EDC removal by extensive monitoring at fourteen wastewater treatment works.
This project has been concerned with providing technical and logistical support to the monitoring of the fourteen sites. The report contains an extensive body of robust data regarding the occurrence, treatment and release of EDCs from conventional WwTW.

Endocrine Disrupters: A Review of the Science Underpinning the ED Research Programme

Ref: 06/TX/04/13            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 412 7

There is increasing evidence of a causal link between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and aquatic effects, particularly on individual fish.  However, there are few data to substantiate any population-level effects on aquatic communities.  This review investigates the effects of wastewaters discharges on aquatic ecosystems, with a focus on fish populations.
There is good evidence that both natural and anthropogenic EDCs occur in the environment at concentrations sufficient to promote effects in individual fish.  However, not all fish species react in the same way and not all wastewaters produce the same response. Evidence is emerging of reproductive effects in severely intersexed fish, which usually form a very small proportion of the total population.  This may explain why there is no clear evidence of population-level effects in fish populations in the UK.
The possibility of both acute localised effects of EDCs on aquatic communities and chronic effects over the longer term should not be discounted.  Impacts on the individual are recognised, although the significance for wider populations remains to be determined.  Further field-based experiments are recommended to provide evidence from which to formulate appropriate policy and practical responses.

Endocrine Modulating Effects of Wastewater Treatment Effluents

Ref: 04/TX/04/10            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-340-6

This project set out to investigate the effects of exposure to wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluent on sexual development in roach (Rutilus rutilus). Two life periods believed to be susceptible to sexual disruption (embryos/fry and adult-post-spawning roach) were exposed to two WwTW with differing chemical compositions for periods up to 300 days. Both effluents were oestrogenic to roach inducing vitellogenin (an oestrogen dependent [female] protein) and the magnitude of the responses paralleled the effluent content of steroid oestrogens. Exposure to the WwTW effluents during early life induced permanent disruptions in gonad duct development (a feminisation of the duct in males) but there was no evidence for alterations in the development of sex cells (no oocytes occurred in testis of male fish) for either life stage exposed. Exposure to WwTWs effluent during early life induced alterations in kidney development that were persistent, but there was no overt kidney damage.

Endocrine Disrupters in Sewage Influents - Analytical Method Development

Ref: 04/TX/04/9            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-339-2

A performance tested analytical method has been developed to determine the natural oestrogens, oestrone and 17-b-oestradiol and the synthetic oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol in sewage influent. Samples were extracted after filtration to separate the liquid and solid phase. The liquid phase was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) disks and the solid phase was extracted with methanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracts were purified using SPE cartridges. Analysis to determine free steroid oestrogens was undertaken using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) operated in the negative ion electrospray mode. Statistical performance testing of the method shows that the procedure can be used for the routine monitoring of free steroids in sewage influent. The statistically derived limits of detection of the method to determine 17-b-oestradiol, ethinyl oestradiol and oestrone in sewage influent were 2.6, 11.4 and 5.2 ng l-1 respectively in the liquid phase and 65, 32 and 98 ng g-1 respectively in the solid phase.

Endocrine Disrupters in Sewage Sludge: A Comparison of Analytical Methods

Ref: 04/TX/04/8            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-320-1

The aim of this research was to determine the oestrogenicity of sewage sludge and soils and to determine endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using a newly developed method. The results show that free steroid oestrogens were detectable at low concentrations in sewage sludge. Oestrogenicity testing of sewage sludge using the ER-CALUX bioassay showed that sewage sludge is oestrogenic. However, aqueous leachates of the soil and most of the sludge samples (except primary and activated sludge) gave no oestrogenic response. This suggests that oestrogenic compounds present in sludge may not leach into groundwater or be bio-available when applied to land.

Endocrine Disrupters in Sewage Sludge: Analytical Method Development

Ref: 03/TX/04/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 307 4

A performance tested analytical method has been developed to determine the natural oestrogens, oestrone and 17-b-oestradiol and the synthetic oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol in sewage sludge and soil. Samples were extracted with methanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracts were purified using a simple clean-up procedure utilising C18 solid phase extraction cartridges. Analysis to determine free steroid oestrogens was undertaken using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) operated in the negative ion electrospray mode. Performance testing of the analytical procedure at a low spike of 50 ng g-1 has provided relative percentage recoveries for each of the analytes: oestrone, 17-b-oestradiol and ethinyl oestradiol of 63-124%, 69-114% and 75-122% respectively over the range of sludge and soil samples tested. The statistically derived limits of detection of the method were in the range 25-100 ng g-1.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater: A Review of Occurrence and Removal

Ref: 02/TX/04/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-269-8

The objective of the study was to review the current state of knowledge of the removal and degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater treatment works. The steroid oestrogens (SOs) were identified as the most likely group of substances found in treated sewage effluent for which regulatory target values may be set. Other EDCs could be controlled at source but this option is not available for SOs. The concentrations of SOs in effluent were reviewed and additional treatment may be needed where dilution is low. Present knowledge of the effectiveness of treatment for SO removal is very limited.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater - A Study of Treatment Options and Potential Costs

Ref: 02/TX/04/6            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-270-1

The objective of the study was to gather and present information on processes for removing endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from wastewater treatment works effluents and to provide a methodology to determine the cost of imposing new controls on these. Treatment options identified included, extended biological treatment, use of activated carbon or the addition of a chemical oxidation stage. The study identified significant gaps in information regarding process performance. Costings showed that there would be substantial financial and environmental costs for society in achieving possible standards and that serious consideration should be given to alternative abatement options.

Oestrogen Steroid Conjugates Stability in Waste Water Streams

Ref: 01/TX/04/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057 254 X

A laboratory simulation of the stability of steroid conjugates in sewage on passage through a sewer and primary settlement within a sewage treatment plant, using radiolabelled (3H) materials at environmentally realistic concentrations (100 ng l-1). Oestradiol-17-glucuronide de-conjugated rapidly in the presence of a low concentration of sewage suggesting that this type of conjugate would not remain intact during transfer to, and primary settlement within, a sewage treatment plant. Oestrone-3-sulphate was more robust, giving little indication of de-conjugation over the first 4 hours. Limited studies are also reported for activated sludge addition and degradation by-products.

QSAR Studies on Fate and Behaviour of Steroid Endocrines in Sewage Treatment

Ref: 01/TX/04/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057 253 1

Literature data and quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) were used in TOXCHEM modelling to predict the behaviour of steroid endocrine disrupters in typical U.K. sewage treatment works. Models for two typical UK sewage treatment plant configurations predicted that volatilisation during sewage treatment will be insignificant for all the oestrogens modelled resulting in a significant proportion of residues in influent sewage appearing in effluents depending on the biodegradation efficiency. It was not possible to include sludge digestion within the TOXCHEM model.

Oestrogenic Chemicals and Their Behaviour During Sewage Treatment

Ref: 98/TX/01/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 129 2

This report reviews the occurrence, degradation and fate of key oestrogenic chemicals during sewage treatment and disposal to agricultural land. This includes an assessment of their partitioning between sewage effluents and sludge and their ultimate environmental fate. The significance of the findings is discussed.

The Sorptive Behaviour of Steroid Oestrogens in Sewage Treatment Plants

Ref: 01/TX/04/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 231 0

The ability of activated sludge particles to sorb steroid oestrogens was tested in the laboratory with fresh mixed liquor from an aeration tank and radio-labelled steroid oestrogen analogues. Most of the sorption was completed in the first minutes of the equilibrium. However, only ethinyloestradiol (EE2) was stable in the sewage matrix, the majority of oestradiol (E2) and oestriol (E3) were rapidly transformed. The main E2 by- product was another oestrogen, oestrone. With an ambient sludge concentration of 3.5 g/ L, only 13% of E3 (Kd 51), 30% of E2 (Kd 142) and 60% of EE2 (Kd 289) was removed by sorption.