Topic catalogues

Topic catalogues list all of our reports published within each topic area / category with abstract and price. Please select a category to download the catalogue.

Water Resources

UKWIR maintains and is constantly adding to, an extensive library of reports which are deliverables from our research programme. Reports Catalogues are created to illustrate the reports that have been produced in each of UKWIR's research topic areas. These reports are freely available to UKWIR subscribers and they may be purchased from the UKWIR website by non-subscribers


Water Resources

How do we halve our freshwater abstractions sustainably by 2050?: Research review and gap analysis  

Ref: 20/WR/02/13            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-885-0

This report provides an initial roadmap, and an integrated portfolio of research projects. Together, these chart a programme of research to support the UK and Ireland water industry to deliver upon the UKWIR Board’s aspiration to halve freshwater abstraction sustainably by 2050. The assessments and recommendations presented in the report constitute the tangible outcomes from a relatively short research review and gap analysis project, as part of its ‘Big Questions’ (BQ) programme of strategic research. Ultimately, this report marks the start of a journey towards meeting the aspiration, and as such, the roadmap and supporting material are designed to be live, and reviewed over time. The main report (Part A), which contains the roadmap linked to 5 key Outcomes, is supported by summary project definitions (Part B), and a summary of the reviews and surveys completed as part of the project (Part C).

Drought Vulnerability Framework  

Ref: 17/WR/02/12            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 846 7

The Drought Vulnerability Framework (DVF) provides a framework of methodologies to enable water companies to better understand the vulnerabilities of their water resource zones to drought.  It builds on the concept of the Drought Response Surface (DRS) originally derived for the Environment Agency ‘Understanding the Performance of Water Supply Systems during Mild to Extreme Droughts’ study (report Ref SC120048/R).  The DVF has used case study examples as a proof of methodology across the range of available data and behavioural models that currently exist within WRZs in England and Wales, to calculate the required inputs to the DRS.  The DRS contains information about drought response and risk to provide companies and stakeholders with a more comprehensive understanding of system resilience to droughts of different durations, in a consistent format. It also highlights critical drought durations for a given WRZ and provides an indication of potential periods of ‘failure’ under droughts of different durations and severities.

The URL for the drought response surface tool is:

This report can be viewed free of charge here

Catchment Issues

Quantifying the Benefits of Water Quality Catchment Management Initiatives: Volume 1 - A Benefit Assessment Framework

Ref: 12/WR/26/10            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 648 0

This report presents a framework and supporting toolkit for assessing the benefits of catchment management schemes. Specifically it develops an approach for quantifying the benefits; provides structured, step-by-step guidance on undertaking a benefit assessment; offers practical advice and guidance on assessing effectiveness and monetising resulting benefits; signposts further guidance, resources and tools; and discusses how the results of the benefit assessment may be used in a cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis.
The framework may be used to undertake a qualitative, quantitative or monetary assessment of the benefits (or negative dis-benefits) resulting from a specific management intervention. The framework may be used in an appraisal to forecast the benefits of one or more options before a decision is made, or in an evaluation to measure the benefits realised by an operational scheme. This information may be an end in itself, but is more commonly input into a cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis to judge whether a scheme is economically viable or to decide where to invest in catchment management.
This set of four Volumes comprises a Benefit Assessment Framework, an Overview Report, a Review of the Effectiveness of Catchment Management Initiatives and Case Studies. 

Planning for Potential Changes in Land Management Practices and Policies

Ref: 12/WR/26/14            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 645 6

This report provides a body of evidence to support planning for future change at a national scale. At a catchment scale, activity and impact will be influenced both by national trends, and by the local conditions, market forces and relevant policy, and action will be ultimately determined by individual landowners. It is the combination of individual and local activities that will determine the nature of land use and management change and the options for a water company to: a) influence processes within a catchment; or b) increase investment in treatment costs.
Planning for future change at some level is essential to ensure that future AMP cycles are appropriately funded. The level at which this planning could take place could be strategic, looking at regional trends or local and catchment based with respect to individual sources. The work undertaken for this project provides an insight into the types of change that could occur and how to assess regional trends at a relatively high level before deciding how to focus future investigations.

WAgriCo Final Technical Report

Ref: 09/WR/26/8            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 545 X

WAgriCo, a match funded project with the EU LIFE Programme (in the UK matched with funding from Defra and UK Partners) was a collaborative catchment management project between UK partners and farmers around Dorchester in the UK and an equivalent arrangement in Lower Saxony in Germany. The aim of the project was to improve groundwater quality by reducing nitrate leaching by adopting the large scale use of a Programme of Measures (PoMs) in the eight pilot catchments. This Final Technical Report, in the EU LIFE format, sets out the findings of this three year project including farmer engagement; farm audits and assessment; PoMs and their uptake; and monitoring. The Annexes that accompany this report on CD-ROM include the earlier reports (08/WR/26/4,5,6&7) as they were submitted during the project, in electronic format .

Water Resources Management in Cooperation with Agriculture: Modelling Nitrate Concentrations with Variations in Time

Ref: 08/WR/26/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 544 1

This report details the finding of the modelling exercise undertaken to show how changes in nitrate leachate from the different primary Programme of Measures would impact on the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater in the project's eight pilot catchments over a period of time. The modelling demonstrated that in some cases the WAgriCo measures would help maintain and improve the groundwater quality. In other cases because of the effects of the historically leached nitrate it would not prevent exceedance of drinking water quality nitrate standard.

Water Resources Management in Cooperation with Agriculture: Secondary Measures for the Protection of Groundwater - Summary Report

Ref: 08/WR/26/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 542 5

The study reviewed a range of Secondary Measures for the Protection of Groundwater, for different land management options that could be taken up by farmers. The study was supported by face-to-face interviews with farmers followed by a more extensive postal questionnaire with others farmers in the river catchments where the WAgriCo project was undertaken. The Main Report is attached on a CD-ROM to this Summary Report.

Water Resources Management in Cooperation with Agriculture: Micro-Macro Economic Analysis

Ref: 08/WR/26/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 541 7

As part of the WAgriCo project a Micro-Macro Economic Analysis was undertaken to assess the cost of ten Programme of Measures which included the six primary Programme of Measures adopted by the farmers engaged with the project.  The analysis assessed the cost at farm, catchment and national levels. In addition, costs of providing agronomic support to farmers were estimated based on two operating scenarios.

The Voluntary Initiative Pilot Catchment Project

Ref: 07/WR/26/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 432 1

Six pilot catchments in England and Scotland were chosen where pesticides were a problem for water abstracters. Five of the catchments were surface waters, two of which included reservoirs and one was a groundwater. Over a four-year period pesticide manufacturers, water companies, agronomists, local farmers and others worked together both locally and nationally to produce a set of tools aimed at reducing pesticides in water. These tools centred on communication of a set of messages, the nature of which along with the delivery methods, evolved over the period of the project. Significant improvements were seen in all catchments. These tools are now being used within the Defra funded England Catchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative.

Reservoir Catchment and Impoundment Management

Ref: 05/WR/26/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-386-4

This scoping study is a survey of literature and industry views on the nature and scale of the issues associated with land use that impact on reservoir management for storing untreated water and on water treatment for potable supply.  It identifies the main problems associated with land use and how these have been managed in the past and summarises the availability of historical data and information that could be used for future work.  It includes the latest work that is still ongoing in land management techniques and goes on to recommend a number of studies for future work.  It particularly focuses on the opportunities that the Water Framework Directive could offer, highlighting the relatively short timescales available to fit in with implementation timetable.

A Review of the UK-ADAPT Project Database

Ref: 04/WR/11/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-321-X

The main purpose of the UK-ADAPT (Agricultural Diffuse Aquatic Pollution Toolkit) initiative is to share knowledge between stakeholders, to enable synthesis of existing information and planning of future work on diffuse water pollution from agriculture. The UK-ADAPT website project database was originally populated by contacting key institutes and individuals, to alert them to the initiative. This document provides a formal review of all the 67 projects that were in the database as of August 2003, in the context of diffuse water pollution from agriculture, catchment management and the Water Framework Directive. Projects were reviewed in terms of providing information on monitoring water quality, modelling/GIS, mitigation methods and effecting changes in management practices. This information was used to draw together a set of recommendations for future research. Future compliance with the Water Framework Directive, and the role that UK-ADAPT can play in helping towards this was also examined.

UKWIR/EA A Unified Methodology for the Determination of Deployable Output from Water Sources - Volume 2

Ref: 00/WR/18/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 199 3

This joint UKWIR/ Environment Agency project examined current practices for determination of surface water and ground water deployable output (DO) and concluded that a unified approach was both desirable and feasible. However because of limitations in data availability and assessment tools it is impossible to implement such a method immediately. The report of the project is in two volumes. Volume 1 describes the background to the project, the survey of existing methods and user needs. It also describes the conceptual development of a proposed unified generic framework for DO determination and its implementation. Full implementation of the unified methodology depends largely on additional data gathering to minimise the subjectivity in applying existing methods and to improve compatibility of surface and groundwater procedures. The report also identifies three areas of further research. Volume 2 is intended to be used as a guide for practitioners and it provides details of the improved methodologies and the u

UKWIR/EA A Unified Methodology for the Determination of Deployable Output from Water Sources - Volume 1

Ref: 00/WR/18/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 198 5

This joint UKWIR/ Environment Agency project examined current practices for determination of surface water and ground water deployable output (DO) and concluded that a unified approach was both desirable and feasible. However because of limitations in data availability and assessment tools it is impossible to implement such a method immediately. The report of the project is in two volumes. Volume 1 describes the background to the project, the survey of existing methods and user needs. It also describes the conceptual development of a proposed unified generic framework for DO determination and its implementation. Full implementation of the unified methodology depends largely on additional data gathering to minimise the subjectivity in applying existing methods and to improve compatibility of surface and groundwater procedures. The report also identifies three areas of further research. Volume 2 is intended to be used as a guide for practitioners and it provides details of the improved methodologies.


Update to the Drought Code of Practice 2013

Ref: 23/WR/02/19            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-984-0

This report is an update to the Drought Code of Practice to incorporate the experience arising from the 2022 drought.  Consideration has been given to new channels of communication such as social media that was not available in 2013, and agreement has been reached on how to deal with new uses of water such as domestic hot tubs.

Review of 2022 Drought Demand Management Measures - Summary Report

Ref: 23/WR/02/18            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-988-8

This study was to quantify the change in water use due to the implementation of drought measures during 2022 including the communication campaigns delivered by all companies and the Temporary Use Bans introduced by six water companies in August 2022. 

Improved Understanding of current and future household consumption

Ref: 21/WR/01/17            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-916-1

The UKWIR project ‘Improving Understanding of Household Consumption’ collated and analysed water metering data to explore patterns in demand for water. The project used innovative data analysis methods to separate measurements of individual household use into ten weekday and ten weekend profiles. These were then interpreted with reference to environmental and socio-economic factors and their influence on customer behaviour. Changes to patterns of water demand through time were also explored. The project report included:

  • Detail of the processes applied for data collection and management, the methodology used to partition households into ‘clusters’ and the results of the data interpretation.
  • Guidance for water companies and other organisations on the implementation of the methods presented, including supporting information on which methods to use and practical guidance.
  • Recommendations for the development of a longitudinal study of household data, to ensure that data collected in future are suitable for data analysis.

Future estimation of unmeasured household consumption

Ref: 17/WR/01/16            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 830 0

A robust estimate of the unmeasured household consumption is an essential component of Water Resource Management Plans, Business Plans and annual reporting.  As domestic revenue meter penetration increases, unmeasured household monitors are becoming more difficult to maintain.  The report’s objective was to identify suitable methods for the estimation of unmeasured consumption in the future.

The current best practice guidance has been reviewed, and in its current form does not contain sufficient guidance to allow companies to adapt their existing monitors to the changing level of metered properties.

Seven potential options for estimating the unmeasured household consumption have been identified that are suitable for circumstances where meter penetration is increasing.  These are all described in the report, and allow companies to develop a reducing cost solution to estimate unmeasured household consumption.

The report contains several recommendations where existing evidence and guidance needs to be strengthened or explored further. 

Integration of behavioural change into demand forecasting and water efficiency practices

Ref: 16/WR/01/15            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 824 6

This project investigated the way customers use water and the effect that behaviours, practices and habits have on demand for water and how understanding these behaviours could improve efforts to reduce household water use.

Project data was collected by surveying 1000 customers, then logging a sample of 62 properties at high resolution to determine their microcomponents of water use. These data enabled the development of a statistical model which explains about 50% of the variation in household demand. The work was supported by a literature review as well as consultation with water companies on their current approaches to gathering customer data.

Guidance is provided in a proposed framework for including behavioural factors in demand forecasts, which is consistent with the WRMP19 guidance on household consumption forecasts. The project also provides best practice guidance for customer surveys, giving companies a method for collecting consistent (and comparable) household data from customer surveys. Guidance for targeting water efficiency activities at different groups of customers based on sub-daily water use behaviour is also provided.

Understanding Customer Behaviour for Water Demand Forecasting

Ref: 14/WR/01/14            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 737 1

Robust forecasts of water consumption are required to manage the future balance between supply and demand. Factors affecting customer behaviour in relation to water use and effects of initiatives to change it have not previously been well understood. This has limited the ability to forecast future consumption and target initiatives promoting water-efficient behaviours.

This project carried out a UK-wide survey of 1500 customers regarding attitudes and behaviours in relation to water. The results identified five customer typologies exhibiting different behaviours in relation to current water use and likely to respond differently to interventions encouraging water-efficient behaviour.

The typologies provide insight into types of behaviour and other factors affecting consumption. Survey results can be used to quantify impacts of behavioural influences across the typologies. The outputs can also assist with targeting water-efficiency interventions and understanding their likely impact. A framework has been provided for incorporating behavioural changes within demand forecasts.

Understanding the Impacts of Drought Restrictions

Ref: 14/WR/01/13            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 712 6

Increasing pressures on water resources are requiring more effective interventions to manage periods of drought.
The 2012 drought provided the first opportunity for water companies to implement a wider range of Temporary Use Bans (TUBs) as introduced by The Water Use (Temporary Bans) Order 2010. Seven water companies implemented TUBs on around 20 million customers. To date, there has been little assessment of the actual impacts on water use behaviour or the effectiveness of water company communications during the drought.
This report presents a clearer picture of the impacts of TUBs during a drought and will support improved messaging and approaches in future droughts. This can financially benefit water companies, through more effective customer messaging to achieve greater water savings. Additionally, understanding the direct and indirect impacts on non-household users will support customer relationships and the existing service incentive mechanism.

Intelligent Metering Initiative: Methodology for Cost Benefit Analysis of Intelligent Metering

Ref: 08/WR/01/9            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 518 2

The outputs from the four initial projects sponsored by the Intelligent Metering initiative (IMI) are provided in this set of 4 reports. The aim of these projects was to assist the industry in developing metering strategies as they move from the AMP4 period into the AMP5 period. A cost-benefit methodology for the development of a company metering programme is defined in 08/WR/01/9; a draft data requirement specification has been developed and the need for a standardised approach is discussed in 08/WR/01/10; the third report in the series, 08/WR/01/11, describes the communications protocols used in other utility sectors and the consultations that were undertaken within the water industry to establish the practicalities of adopting common protocols; and in 08/WR/01/12, the final report, a review of the impacts of intelligent metering and a gap analysis against the published intelligent metering roadmap are presented.

A Generic Business Case Model for Household Metering: Workshop - December 2007

Ref: 08/WR/01/8            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 492 5

This report provides background on the costs, benefits and impact assessment of intelligent metering in the UK water industry. Previous research and regulatory background leading to the UKWIR Business case for Metering seminar held in December 2007 is outlined. The report includes the presentation slides from the workshop.

Peak Water Demand Forecasting Methodology

Ref: 06/WR/01/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 425 9

This report presents a framework methodology for peak water demand forecasting which aims to improve consistency and to strengthen the link between demand forecasts and levels of service.  The report sets out guidance to practitioners, including methods for peak demand headroom estimation, building on the methodology in UKWIR Report 02/WR/13/2.  The results of an industry questionnaire survey are presented along with pilot trial peak demand forecasts for five water companies.

A Framework Methodology for Estimating the Impact of Household Metering on Consumption - Further Analysis

Ref: 04/WR/01/6            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-319-8

This report presents the methodology and findings from a further empirical investigation into the determinants of the household decision to opt for measured charging and the resulting effects on water consumption. The investigation expands upon previous UKWIR research for project WR/01 “The Impact of Household Metering on Consumption”, which is reported in UKWIR Reports 03/WR/01/4 and 03/WR/01/5. The present report presents findings on the effects of metering publicity on optant take-up, the effects of optant metering on medium-term optant consumption trends and the effects of opting on consumption in peak months and seasons and in various weather conditions.

A Framework Methodology for Estimating the Impact of Household Metering on Consumption - Main Report

Ref: 03/WR/01/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-301-5

This report presents the Framework Methodology for estimating the impact of metering (both changes in the number of metered customers and the demand effects of metering) on consumption, in the form of a six stage process. For each stage a range of approaches companies might take, and the data required to do so, are also presented. An accompanying Supplementary Information Report provides useful background and inputs. Sold as a set with 03/WR/01/5

Outage Allowances For Water Resource Planning

Ref: 95/WR/01/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057 122 5

A methodology, acceptable to regulators, allowing UK water suppliers to make appropriate and justifiable allowances (at peak and average DG1 calculations) for the planned and unplanned (pollution incidents, power failures etc) loss of water resources when planning capital investment. A decision tree indicates whether outage calculations from a statistical package, @ RISK, should be applied. Sold with software on CDr together with User Manual

The Environmental Effects of Demand Management - Project Record

Ref: 00/WR/17/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 199 3

The key objective of the project was to advance knowledge/understanding of the translation of water demand management measures into hydrological effects, and then subsequently into environmental effects. A method was developed to aid, and make more consistent, the process of: identifying whether demand management measures can benefit environmental sites affected by low flows/water levels; and establishing the wider hydrological and environmental effects. The methodology provides a common approach to improve discussion and decision making amongst practitioners from different backgrounds, as well as putting water users (public and commercial) in closer contract with the benefits of reduced water use.

The Effect of Leakage, Operational Constraints and Restrictions on Peak Household Water Demand

Ref: 96/WR/05/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 088 1

Assesses the effect of immediate repair of burst pipes towards meeting high peak demands. Quantifies the effect of media campaigns and hospipe bans on the peak demand for water in twenty seven district meter areas. Examines the effect on peak demands of pressure control and related devices and considers the issue of lower pressures on domestic appliances.

UKWIR/ NRA Demand Forecasting Methodology Main Report

Ref: 95/WR/01/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 120 9

A common methodology for UK water suppliers and their regulators to forecast water demands. Separates demand into agreed, well- defined components (metered, unmetered, losses etc) applying appropriate methodology. The emphasis is on transparency and internal consistency in the calculations with maximum likelihood estimation for reconciling any inbalances. A spreadsheet/ user manual accompanies the main report.

UKWIR/EA Evaluating the Impact of Demand Restrictions, Main Report

Ref: 98/WR/06/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 093 8

A method based on estimation of micro- component water usage in households and non- households under unrestricted and restricted demand situations has been developed as a general- purpose tool for evaluating the impact of restrictions on customer demands for water. This report explains the principles underlying the use of the methods, and the procedures involved in making estimates of the demands for water under unrestricted and restricted use. A simple- to- use EXCEL spreadsheet which acts as a data archive and as a calculation tool is provided, and guidance on the application of the method in different circumstances is offered.

When you purchase this Report you will also receive UKWIR report 98/WR/06/2, with its Software and User Manual.

A Methodology for Targeting and Delivering Environmental Benefits through Water Demand Management

Ref: 00/WR/17/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 198 5

The key objective of the project was to advance knowledge/ understanding of the translation of water demand management measures into hydrological effects, and then subsequently into environmental effects. A method was developed to aid, and make more consistent, the process of: · Identifying whether demand management measures can benefit environmental sites affected by low flows/ water levels; and · Establishing the wider hydrological and environmental effects. The methodology provides a common approach to improve discussion and decision making amongst practitioners from different backgrounds, as well as putting water users (public and commercial) in closer contact with the benefits of reduced water use.

The Effect of Metering on Peak and Average Demand

Ref: 96/WR/05/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 000 8

Uses consumption data from district meter areas that contain predominantly either metered or unmetered properties. These are related to six water using classes (based on fifty four ACORN property classification types) to quantify the metering effect. Recommends how companies should collect data and that more evidence on hosepipe use is required. The international literature is reviewed.

Quantifying Benefits of Peak Demand Management Measures

Ref: 96/WR/05/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 089 X

Collates the results of three investigations into the very high average and peak demand encountered during the hog dry summer of 1995. Gives conclusions and recommendations on system design, the effect of metering and the relationship with leakage control, operational restraints and restrictions on peak demand. Sets the work in context of the industry's water resources R& D strategy.

An Assessment of the Supply Problems Experienced in 1995

Ref: 96/WR/05/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 032 6

Examines the range of operational problems encountered in a large number of supply zones during the 1995 drought. Gives results of twenty four zonal case studies and a problem 'hit list' by which water companies can review the water supply zones in their region. There is a discussion of the design criteria involved.

Causes of and Future Trends in Peak Household Water Demands

Ref: 96/WR/05/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 086 5

Summer 1995 is ranked against hot, dry summers since 1966 and the probability of a recurrence by 2005 assessed for the regions of the UK. Peak household water demands are related to weather and socio- economic variables to give predictions to 2005. Includes a method for forecasting short term summer household demand. Further data requirements are discussed.

V1 and V2 UKWIR/ Environment Agency - Economics of Demand Management

Ref: 96/WR/03/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 034 2

Establishes a framework for UK water suppliers and their regulators, balancing demand management with water supply investment and operational options. Demand management is fully defined and broken down into resource, production, distribution and customer- side management. The first part deals with the problem, the options and the solutions. The second part is a worked hypothetical example, designed to involve most options.

A Methodology for the Determination of Outputs of Groundwater Sources

Ref: 95/WR/01/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 121 7

Details existing methods and data availability. Provides an easy to use unambiguous, regulatory, auditable methodology for assessing reliable outputs from single sources to complex audits systems. Operational or, where data is lacking, analytical approaches provide deployable outputs and potential yields for the range of water levels and demand conditions. Includes ten case studies.

UKWIR/EA Definition of Key terms for Water Resources Practitioners

Ref: 97/WR/14/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 001 6

A joint UKWIR/Environment Agency report that allows easy access to over 200 definitions and abbreviations. Produced for the purpose of clear communication on a common basis in the UKWIR regulatory work on water resources. Includes definitions on the subjects of outage allowances, demand forecasting, leakage, risk and economics of demand management.

UKWIR/EA Forecasting Water Demand Components - Best Practice Manual

Ref: 97/WR/07/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 040 7

This project reviewed, tested and documented best practice methodologies for forecasting water demand, culminating in the production of a best practice manual. The findings build upon the agreed methodology and definition of components of water demand, with the aim of providing methodologies that are robust and acceptable to the industry and regulators. Forecasts based on a 'rule of thumb' rate of increase are not adequate, nor will they be accepted by the regulator. Among the recommendations are that forecasts of household demand should be determined by identifying the various uses of water, that different groups within measured households should be analysed separately, and that non-household demands are forecast using an explicit link to economic prospects. The study also suggests the need for a comprehensive survey of appliance volumes for use throughout the industry, and that the industry may benefit from agreeing a number of common scenarios.

Demand/Supply Balance

Handbook of Source Yield Methodologies

Ref: 14/WR/27/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 736 3

Tha Handbook of Source Yield Methodologies provides practitioner-focussed and technically-oriented guidance on yield assessment methods for both surface water and groundwater sources. Aiming to support analyses required as part of Water Resource Management Plans, the handbook covers good practice methods currently used within the UK water industry, but also draws on international experience where appropriate.

The handbook discusses how and when different methods might best be applied and provides direction on data requirements and sources of uncertainty. Previous guidance that is still considered good practice is highlighted, however the handbook also documents innovative variations on established techniques that have helped water companies to improve robustness in estimated source yield and mitigate for common problems. Generic guidance is also provided on topics such as reporting of assessments and the need for clear documentation with assumptions stated. A number of worked examples are provided in order to help first time users gain practice in applying yield assessment methods.

Water Resources Planning Tools 2012: Summary Report

Ref: 12/WR/27/6            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 643 X

The research project titled 'Water Resources Planning Tools 2012', with a primary focus on the Deployable Output (DO) and the Economics of Balancing Supply and Demand (EBSD) methods, has resulted in improvements to the existing water resources planning tools. These tools include methodologies, guidelines and modelling approaches associated with the production of water management plans.
The project developed risk-based DO and EBSD methods. These methods are scalable and allow planners to choose and use techniques of different levels of sophistication, proportional to individual needs, planning issues and available data sets. The improved methods incorporate levels of service to customers. This is highlighted through trade-off relationships between efficient EBSD programmes balanced with water system reliability.
The project also evaluated new methods to respond to specific longer term planning needs, such as the need for new forms of economic appraisal.
The Summary report has a series of five additional project outputs attached on CD-ROM.

The Economics of Balancing Supply & Demand (EBSD) Guidelines

Ref: 02/WR/27/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-273-6

The Economics of Balancing Supply & Demand (ESBD) sets out the stages to be followed by a water resources planner in order to develop a supply-demand balance plan. Support in carrying out these stages is provided by explanations of technical issues, and by a series of worked examples. This document accompanies 02/WR/27/3 and provides guidelines, bound in an A4 ring binder.

The Economics of Balancing Supply & Demand (EBSD) Main Report

Ref: 02/WR/27/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-272-8

The Economics of Balancing Supply & Demand (ESBD) sets out the stages to be followed by a water resources planner in order to develop a supply-demand balance plan. Support in carrying out these stages is provided by explanations of technical issues, and by a series of worked examples.

An Improved Methodology for Assessing Headroom

Ref: 02/WR/13/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-287-6

An improved methodology, adopting Monte Carlo techniques, is presented to assess Headroom, a key component of the supply demand balance. The document explains the principles of the methodology, provides guidance on how to apply it, including pro-forma for recording data input and decisions, and explains how to interpret the results. It also reports on the case studies used to test the methodology and provides worked examples.

A Practical Method for Converting Uncertainty into Headroom

Ref: 98/WR/13/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 096 2

This report describes the background to and the results of the research project commissioned by United Kingdom Water Industry Research Ltd (UKWIR) and carried out by Sir William Halcrow & Partners (from May 1997 to January 1998) into converting uncertainty in the supply- demand balance into headroom. Headroom is a planning allowance and is the buffer between supply and demand to cater for specified uncertainties in the overall supply- demand balance to help a water company achieve its chosen level of service. This report describes a pragmatic methodology, based on multi- criteria analysis, to assess the magnitude of the uncertainties faced in a resource zone and thus enable the water company to allow for the effect of these in the supply- demand balance. The methodology is designed to introduce structure and clarity to the problem of assessing planning allowances. In doing so it will help to promote dialogue between water companies and the regulators on water resource planning issues.

V1& 2 Sufficiency of Water - Methodology for Assessing the Supply/ Demand Balance

Ref: 96/WR/04/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 123 3

A methodology for UK water suppliers and regulators to assess the supply/ unrestricted demand balance in the medium and long term. Combines previous studies on outputs for surface water and groundwater, demand and outage allowances to estimate the risks of demand exceeding supply. Includes examples and a spreadsheet to facilitate calculations. PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS SOFTWARE CAN ONLY BE USED WITH LOTUS 123


Understanding the Potential Impacts of the Extraction of Unconventional Gases on the UK Water Industry - Stage 2

Ref: 14/WR/09/10            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 720 7

Shale gas and coalbed methane CBM) are trapped at depth in low permeability shale and coal. The extraction of shale gas requires (as may CBM) hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to permit upwards gas migration via a well. Fracking involves injecting lage volumes of fluid under high pressure. Some of this fracking fluid returns to the surface as flowback. During production, wells also generate saline produced water potentially containing radioactive substances. Produced water and flowback require treatment and disposal.
This report represents Stage 2 of a project to understand the potential impacts of fracking and CBM extraction on the UK water industry. It addresses specific concerns regarding: demands on water resources; risks to groundwater and surface water from chemical additives, gas and formation fluids; managamenet and treatment of waste waters; and the potential risks to water company infrastructure from induced seismicity.

Understanding the Potential Impacts of Shale Gas Fracking on the UK Water Industry - Stage 1

Ref: 13/WR/09/9            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 699 5

Shale gas is trapped at depth in low permeability rocks. Its extraction requires hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to permit upwards gas migration via a well. Fracking involves injecting large volumes of fluid under high pressure. Following fracking, a proportion of the fracking fluid returns to the surface where it requires treatment and disposal. During production wells also generate saline water that requires disposal.

This report represents Stage 1 of a project to understand the potential impacts of fracking on the UK water industry. Specific industry concerns include: demand on water resources: risks to groundwater from chemical additives, gas and formation fluids: management of waste waters: and the potential for induced seismicity.

The Stage 1 report identifies the location of potential shale reserves in the UK and their relationship to water resources and water company infrastructure. Consideration is given to the likely location, scale and timing of water demand.

Implications of Changing Groundwater Quality for Water Resources and the UK Water Industry- Phase 3: Financial and Water Resources Impact

Ref: 04/WR/09/8            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-343-0

This national study shows that groundwater quality problems in the UK have cost the water industry £754  million (at 2003 prices) since 1975. Costs are based on the need for blending, treatment, and source closures. Currently about 2450 Ml/d, almost 50% of the groundwater used for public supply, is affected by groundwater quality concerns. This reflects a combination of deterioration in groundwater quality and more stringent regulatory standards for drinking water. Extrapolation using two alternative scenarios suggests that future capital investment costs could be between £73 million and £180 million for each 5-year AMP period. Further, by 2027, the volume of water treated or replaced may have doubled. If treatment is to be curtailed under the provisions of the Water Framework Directive, capital costs of the order of £2 billion seem likely for alternative sources of water.

Implications of Changing Groundwater Quality for Water Resources and the UK Water Industry- Phase 3: Best Practice Guidelines for Investigating Processes Controlling Groundwater Quality

Ref: 04/WR/09/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-342-2

This report sets out best practice guidelines for improved decision-making in investigations of water quality problems. The primary audience is the water industry but it is useful for a wide range of people involved in water supply and water quality assessment. These guidelines define the stages to be followed by investigators to understand the processes controlling groundwater quality. A flow chart links to a series of questions that helps investigators to evaluate the processes and factors related to water quality at an abstraction systematically. References are provided to relevant report sections where further details and information are given to answer these questions and inform investigation development. Key to the whole process is early synthesis of data and understanding of the groundwater system into a conceptual model. This should be formulated to indicate which factors and processes control pollutant migration in the subsurface and are relevant to an investigation. This leads on to the development of a strategy for collection of new data. A series of matrices for selecting appropriate investigation methods for collecting new data to characterize the source, pathway and receptor are presented.

Implications of Changing Groundwater Quality for Water Resources and the UK Water Industry, Phase 2: Trend Detection Methodology and Improved Monitoring and Assessment Programmes: A Practical Guide

Ref: 03/WR/09/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-308-2

This report contains a brief practical guide on methods of trend identification and quantification, and on ways in which groundwater quality monitoring by the water industry can be improved.

The guide comprises two parts; firstly, an outline, step-by-step approach to the trend detection methodology including indications of software requirements. This methodology is generic and uses both graphical methods and quantitative statistical procedures illustrated with worked examples from industry datasets. Secondly, a framework is provided for developing improved monitoring to provide the data needed for assessing groundwater quality. This uses a series of queries about existing and potential groundwater quality concerns to develop suitable determinand choices and sampling frequencies. The guide is supported by a background technical main report.

Sold with accompanying CD-ROM 03/WR/09/6

Stakeholder Participation, Policy and Management

Ref: 03/WR/09/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-296-5

This project considered two key elements in protecting companies’ groundwater abstraction licences from sustainability reductions: (1) Stakeholder participation and (2) the use of science in decision-making. Work focused on the threats and opportunities offered to water companies as stakeholders in the water environment, including. The project also examined the degree to which the results of hydro-ecological model and methods provide information for decision-making on environmental impacts of abstraction. It identified gaps between outputs and the requirements of decision-makers and specified R&D to reduce uncertainty in decision making.

Implications of Changing Groundwater Quality for Water Resources and the UK Water Industry Phase I Review and Scoping Study

Ref: 02/WR/09/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-281-7

This study reviewed information on raw groundwater monitoring and quality trends from the water industry, the regulatory agencies and the published literature. Findings showed that monitoring practices still vary widely and that nitrate remains the most widespread water quality problem. Statistical and deterministic aspects of trend assessment and prediction were reviewed. An outline framework has been developed to guide the process of trend assessment. Improved monitoring and data evaluation and a coordinated monitoring strategy between utilities and regulatory agencies, the development of a consistent methodology for trend detection for use in AMP4, and longer term work to improve understanding of trends in groundwater quality were recommended.

ASR-UK:Elucidating the Hydrogeological Issues Associated with Aquifer Storage and Recovery in the UK

Ref: 02/WR/09/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-263-9

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) in the UK is currently the subject several pilot investigations but, as yet, no schemes have been commissioned. From the water resource planning perspective, ASR has many plus points but, from an asset investment perspective the current technical uncertainties mean that other options may appear more certain of success. To reduce this perceived uncertainty ASR-UK investigated the physical and chemical aspects of ASR in order to provide a better understanding and thereby minimise risk. The project outputs include a summary report, a web site, interim technical reports and models to assist decision making at all stages of an investigation.

Critical Period Groundwater Yield

Ref: 02/WR/23/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 252 3

This project investigated the impacts of drought and climate change on the deployable output of groundwater sources. Observation borehole data were interrogated, using statistical models, to assess the nature of groundwater droughts and the potential impact of climate change. Methods were also developed for assessing the impact of changes in groundwater level on the deployable output of groundwater sources. These methods have been included within a framework approach, developing upon the existing groundwater methodology.

Diffuse Pollutants in Groundwater -- Economic Appraisal

Ref: 01/WR/21/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 222 1

The study presents a methodology for a financial assessment of the environmental impacts of diffuse pollutants on groundwater. The importance of local factors and the need for site-specific controls on agricultural activities are highlighted. The issue of compensating the agricultural community for restricting the usage of nitrate and pesticides is raised.


Evaluating the Effectiveness of Sustainability Reductions

Ref: 14/WR/33/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 742 8

This project consolidates the existing knowledge base of completed sustainability reduction schemes across the UK, and reports on their effectiveness, lessons learned and good practice. It highlights the scale of schemes that have been delivered and their relative success in delivering environmental improvement. Detailed case study analysis, structured interviews and facilitated stakeholder engagement identified a body of lessons learned and examples of good practice.

Consideration of the collated evidence, as well as of recent research and regulatory developments, has been used to develop a series of recommendations for the water industry to take forward for future sustainability reduction schemes. These include improving the provision of robust evidence to justify sustainability reduction schemes, acquisition of appropriate data to develop successful, cost-effective solutions, and the importance of post-scheme appraisal to assess success against pre-defined outcomes. Each recommendation is accompanied by additional guidance in the form of a practitioners 'toolkit'.

Managing Through Drought: Code of Practice and Guidance for Water Companies on Water Use Restrictions - 2013 [incorporating lessons from the 2011-12 drought]

Ref: 14/WR/33/6            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 708 8

This Code of Practice (CoP) provides guidance to water companies on the effective implementation of water use restrictions by way of Temporary Use Bans (TUBs) and Drought Orders (DO) to help manage demand during times of drought. This project has revised the previous CoP to incorporate the experience arising from the 2011-12 drought. It has been informed by discussions with staff from Water UK, from the water resources, legal and communication departments of water comapnies, the Environment Agency, and the Consumer Coucil for Water.
This CoP sets good practice Principles and Actions for water companies in England and Wales to follow when they are evaluating whether and how water use restrictions will be implemented in their supply area in times of drought. It provides a practical framework and body of information for water companies to assist in the creation of Drought Plans and management of water use restrictions.

Heavily Modified Water Bodies: Guidance Document

Ref: 12/WR/33/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 641 3

Framework guidance has been prepared for both water companies and their regulators on identifying and assessing appropriate management actions to mitigate the ecological impacts of reservoirs. Reservoirs are defined under the Water Framework Directive as a hydro-morphological pressure on ecological quality that requires assessment of impact, leading to consideration of mitigation. Mitigation assessment, for which this guidance has been prepared, is required wherever the competent authority identifes that the reservoir causes impacts that require mitigation. Management actions will be required to deliver 'good ecological potential' - the Water Framework Directive target for heavily modified waterbodies - in a cost effective, consistent and sustainable manner. Where mitigation cannot deliver 'good ecological potential', the environment regulator and Government may consider applying for exemptions - this will require evidence which can be presented by following the framework guidance. This main, stepwise, Guidance Document, is supported by a Reference Manual, including a worked example on how to undertake and report a mitigation assessment.

Code of Practice and Guidance on Water Use Restrictions

Ref: 11/WR/33/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 587 5

This report comprises a Code of Practice and guidance to water companies on the implementation of water use restrictions to manage demand during times of drought. It provides an overview of the drought planning and management process, and is designed to be used by water companies when they are updating their drought plans, and when they are evaluating whether and how to implement water use restrictions during a drought. This report updates the Code of Practice and guidance report originally issued in 2009 (09/WR/33/2) following the introduction of new legislation on water use restrictions in 2010 and 2011.


Deriving a Best Value Water Resources Management Plan

Ref: 20/WR/02/14            Price: £10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-905-5

The UKWIR research project “Deriving a best value Water Resources Management Plan” was commissioned to provide a comprehensive framework and guidance incorporating technical, economic, environmental and legal perspectives to allow organisations to derive a best value strategic water resources plan (WRP) in the UK and Ireland.  The project has developed a best value WRP framework which includes support guidance on environmental regulations, regulator engagement, stakeholder engagement and customer engagement.  The generic approach within the framework is based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and sets out the steps that planners can follow to develop their best value WRP.  The framework provides a definition of a best value WRP and identifies principles of best value planning.  The deliverables include a final report and a practitioner’s guide.  This project ensures that companies and regional groups have a framework they can use for best value planning.

Drought and Demand: Modelling the Impact of Restrictions on Demand During Drought

Ref: 07/WR/02/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 445 3

The objective of this study was to attempt to quantify the impact of restrictions on demand during the drought, using a multiple linear regression model.

The approach was to create a simple spreadsheet model for predicting daily demand in the absence of demand restrictions, based on a number of key explanatory factors - weather variables and time-variant factors (such as month of the year, weekends etc.).  This model allowed prediction of what demands would have been in 2005-06 had restrictions not been imposed.  The results were compared against those from a second predictive model of demand with restrictions included as variables.  This enabled the effect of different restrictions on demand to be calculated in each resource zone (although there are limitations associated with regression modelling).

WRMP 2019 Methods – Decision Making Process: Guidance

Ref: 16/WR/02/10            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 813 0

As part of the UKWIR WRMP 2019 Methods Programme, the Decision Making Process Project was commissioned to provide a revised and updated decision making framework which reflects the evolution from the Economics of Balancing Supply & Demand (EBSD) framework (2002). It aims to guide water resource planners on framing the problem and on addressing it using the full array of feasible techniques (both old and new).
The decision making framework provides a clear, auditable and systematic process for planners to follow in relation to the development and application of decision making approaches for water resource planning. This decision making framework should be read in conjunction with the parallel UKWIR Guidance on Risk Based Planning Methods. Both projects form part of a linked investigation into risks, uncertainty and alternative approaches to WRMP decision making that can be incorporated into the development of WRMPs.
The report is available for Download free of charge by clicking here.

WRMP 2019 Methods – Risk Based Planning

Ref: 16/WR/02/11            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 814 9

As part of the UKWIR WRMP 2019 Methods Programme, the Risk Based Methods Project was commissioned to provide practitioners with a new set of tools with which they can evaluate supply, demand and investment risks and incorporate them into the WRMP decision making process. These are described in a fully structured process that incorporates existing methods, but allows practitioners to use the new methods where it is appropriate and proportionate to do so. The use of risk based planning allows practitioners to better understand the current and future drought risks that they face, and create stronger links between the WRMP and the Drought Plan.
The guidance has been written to be fully compatible with, and act as a support to, the UKWIR WRMP 2019 Decision Making Processes guidance. It also contains guidelines for communicating risk and uncertainty, and allows practitioners to structure risk and uncertainty within the WRMP in a way that is technically compatible with the statements that are used in that communication.
The report is available for Download free of charge by clicking here.

WRMP19 Methods – Household Consumption Forecasting

Ref: 15/WR/02/9            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 805 X

The Household Consumption Forecasting Guidance Manual provides practitioners with technical guidance on how to forecast household water consumption.  It presents methods to determine the most appropriate approaches for use, depending on the ‘level of concern’ in a water resources zone. It provides an outline of different forecasting methods, identifying data requirements and pros and cons of each.  It includes sections on understanding the factors that influence household consumption, methods for segmenting customers (e.g. by meter status), dealing with weather effects, and uncertainty.  The guidance has been developed to link with other UKWIR reports that support the WRMP19 water resources planning guidelines, including methods on property, population and occupancy forecasting and risk based planning.  The manual sets out several alternative methods to the micro-component forecasting approach that has been used by the water industry for a number years.  It also includes a case study of an imaginary water resources planner.  The manual is accompanied by Supporting Guidance which presents the results of stakeholder consultation; a review of the factors that influence consumption and further background on methods for forecasting household consumption.

The Full Report and Supporting Guidance can be ordered in printed format as normal, or downloaded free of charge below:

WRMP19 - Methods – Population, Household Property and Occupancy Forecasting

Ref: 15/WR/02/8            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 804 1

Household demand typically accounts for about half of the water put into supply by UK water companies. Reliable and robust projections of household population, properties and occupancy are therefore essential for water resources planning. This project has reviewed appropriate methods for forecasting population, household properties and occupancy. This included extensive stakeholder engagement with water companies, regulators, government and a sample of local authorities. Approaches used in other sectors were also examined.

Recommended methods have been provided that enable flexibility of approach and which are supported by industry regulators and government. A Guidance Manual has been produced to provide practical guidance to water companies on how to carry out population, household property and occupancy forecasting. A Worked Example provides a practical example of how to follow the guidance and undertake the calculations. Finally, a Supplementary Report sets out information and technical detail to support development of the new methodology.

Strategic Environmental Assessment and Habitats Regulations Assessment - Guidance for Water Resources Management Plans and Drought Plans

Ref: 12/WR/02/7            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 627 8

This report provides up to date guidance for water companies undertaking Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Habitats Regulations Assessment (HRA) of their water resources management plans and drought plans. The guidance sets out methods designed to facilitate a consistent approach across the industry, while helping to ensure regulatory compliance. The guidance reviews SEAs and HRAs of plans produced during PR09 and clarifies emerging issues, including potential double counting of impacts, the role of SEA and how its outcomes should be integrated into plans; and the application of HRA at the plan as opposed to project level. The guidance was developed through close cooperation between the regulators and water companies on the project Steering Group. These extensive discussion helped to define a workable approach which satisfies regulatory requirements, and which is aligned with the Environment Agency's Drought Planning Guideline and Water Resources Planning Guideline.

Strategic Environmental Assessment - Guidance for Water Resources Management Plans and Drought Plans

Ref: 07/WR/02/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 463 1

Water resources management plans (WRMP) and drought plans (DP) may require strategic environmental assessment under the SEA Directive. 'Best Practice' guidance was produced, firstly to determine this requirement, and secondly, how best to implement it.
A methodology, adaptable to different water company approaches, was developed to integrate SEA into WRMP/DP formulation. Environmental and social criteria were derived for the SEA from a review of baseline data and relevant planning and policy documents, and used to assess WRMP schemes, WRMP programmes and DP options alongside existing assessment methods based on cost (eg AIC/AISC). Cumulative effects were considered as required by the Directive, and worked examples of SEA applications were provided. The importance of providing a detailed explanatory commentary alongside the assessment results to achieve transparency and accountability was emphasised.

Drought and Demand: Scoping Study Investigating Drought Effects on Water Quality in Distribution

Ref: 07/WR/02/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 446 1

The project involved a short desk-based study to examine the potential effects that drought may have on water quality in the distribution system. It attempted to identify the consequences for water availability, costs and quality at the customers' tap. The project did not examine supplies or potential treatment issues.

The water companies and other key stakeholders were asked to report on any issues relating to the effects of the drought on water quality within distribution systems. There were concerns over the effects of using standpipes or introducing rota cuts, but the chances of these being required were considered to be very remote.

The findings of this study suggest that there were no significant issues experienced or expected with water quality in the distribution system as a result of the 2004-06 drought or the short term responses to it.

Drought and Demand: Potential for Improving the Management of Future Droughts

Ref: 07/WR/02/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 444 5

The objective of this study was to identify improvements or clarifications that could be made to existing regulations and legislation to improve the management of future droughts.

Current legislation relevant to the management of demand in times of drought was reviewed, and relationships between regulators, water companies and customers during drought were explored using structured telephone interviews and correspondence.

This study found that companies' and regulators' interpretation of current legislation differs. Development of an Industry Code of Practice governing demand restrictions during droughts is recommended. This should include guidelines on what a company can and cannot include in a hosepipe ban and which customers are affected.

The Cost of Environmental Sustainability - A Contribution to the CAMS Process - Technical Report

Ref: 02/WR/27/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 258 2

The principal objective for this project was to establish a framework methodology, which could be used to determine the economic costs and consequences of a loss of resources or of deployable output that is intended to provide benefits to environmental sustainability. The framework methodology can be used by water companies to assess the impact of any change of licensed abstraction(COLA). This includes a number of potential actions occurring under the Environment Agency’s Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy (CAMS) process. This technical report illustrates various parts of the methodology in greater detail.

The Cost of Environmental Sustainability - A Contribution to the CAMS Process - Final Report

Ref: 02/WR/27/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 257 4

The principal objective for this project was to establish a framework methodology, which could be used to determine the economic costs and consequences of a loss of resources or of deployable output that is intended to provide benefits to environmental sustainability. The framework methodology can be used by water companies to assess the impact of any change of licensed abstraction(COLA). This includes a number of potential actions occurring under the Environment Agency�s Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy (CAMS) process. This final report sets out the main aspects of the framework methodology.

Water Efficiency

Effectiveness of Measures to Complement, or as an Alternative to, Abstraction Reduction

Ref: 13/WR/25/5            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 687 1

The aim of this study was to provide water companies with an evidence base of the success of measures that could be used to complement, or as an alernative to, abstraction reduction. The specific objectives were; to collate evidence for alternative, or complementary measures to abstraction reduction or increased compensation flow releases for use in future water resources investigatons and options appraisals; to assess and critically review the technical success of alternative approaches in enhancing ecological quality; to provide an evidence base of potential alternative options to simply reducing abstraction.
Case studies for the measures were selected from a combination of approaches. To illustrate the case study examples sourced, an 'effectiveness review tool' was developed in Excel. This 'user firendly' tool was designed as a 'stand-alone' method to enable the user to find more information about the individual measures and details of the various case studies. A review was also undertaken of available hydro-ecological tools and approaches that can be used to assess the ecological effectiveness of measures. Finally, consideration was given to how this evidence could be improved through the provision of guidance on the design and implementation of pilot studies.

Estimating the Water Savings for Baseline Water Efficiency Activities

Ref: 09/WR/25/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 550 6

This project produced a method to estimate the amount of water saved as a result of behavioural based (soft) water efficiency activities, allowing the value of these activities to be recognised and traded against the companies' water efficiency targets.
The top 8 behavioural based activities carried out by water companies in the UK were identified. For each of these, a method was developed to estimate the water saved using: the numbers of consumers engaged, the potential water savings arising from the change in behaviour and the level of engagement for behaviour change.
Evidence in some areas is weak or does not exist, therefore the method allows water companies to produce the 'best estimate' in an objective and consistent way. The assumptions or estimates are clearly stated so that they are open to scrutiny and challenge, and as more evidence becomes available, they can be improved or replaced by better data.

A Framework for Valuing the Options for Managing Water Demand

Ref: 07/WR/25/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 462 3

The project on water demand management options was established to develop a best practice framework for assessing the contribution of demand management to long-term supply/demand balance planning.  It also set out to develop the online evidence database for demand side measures and a wider understanding and consensus for the improved use of economic analysis in considering the role of demand management in water resource planning and the supply/demand balance.
This project allows a more co-ordinated use of evidence and best practice by the industry to support the analysis of demand side measures and their inclusion in water resource planning. This will enable companies to present a robust case to the regulators for including water demand management measures in future business plans.

Sustainability of Water Efficiency

Ref: 06/WR/25/2            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 403 8

The project developed a best practice framework, in collaboration with stakeholders, for determining the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of water efficiency measures. A standardised approach was developed for data collection, analysis and presentation of results. Data were collated for 44 water efficiency projects. Long run marginal costs (LRMC), reliability bands and accuracy bands were calculated for each project. A web-based tool was developed to allow users to interrogate the database, update existing projects and add new projects. Recommendations are made regarding the specific focus for future water efficiency research.

Quantification of the Savings, Costs and Benefits of Water Efficiency

Ref: 03/WR/25/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1-84057-291-4

This report aims to define best practice in water efficiency research. The objective of this report is to provide water industry practitioners with robust guidance in planning and implementing water efficiency research. Guidance on project and risk management, project design and statistical analysis is provided. This is based on real-life experience from 14 demonstration projects that were monitored during this study. Tools are provided that assist in project costing. Development of definitive consumption savings available from water efficiency is expensive and trade-off/compromise is necessary. Reference is made to previous work and recommendations are made for future water efficiency investigations.

Water Reuse

Establishing a Robust Case for Final Effluent Reuse Phase 2: Testing the UK Regulatory Framework

Ref: 15/WR/29/4            Price: £10
ISBN: 184057 768 1

The option to augment water supplies by intentionally reusing final treated effluent has moved into mainstream thinking within the UK, evidenced by inclusion within 2014 Water Resource Management Plans, and influenced by reuse activity around the world and European activity promoting uptake of reuse across the member states. The challenge now is to examine the barriers and opportunities to make reuse a more attractive option.

It is essential to understand how reuse schemes could be regulated. Phase 1 examined the case for reuse in the UK by identifying the associated risks and various approaches that have been taken around the world to regulate reuse schemes. This study has focused on identifying the key receptors that could be vulnerable to gaps or other weaknesses in the regulatory framework and the types of risk that could arise.

Establishing a Robust Case for Final Effluent Reuse - An Evidence Base

Ref: 14/WR/29/3            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 725 8

Treated effluent is widely re-used as a resource for agricultural irrigation, urban non-potable use, industrial use and drinking water supplies around the world. Water stress and environmental regulations in the UK are driving UK water companies to consider reuse as a strategic supply option and so require evidence on the array of risks and opportunities this brings.
This study examines evidence from over 200 relevant case studies of both successful and abandoned treated effluent reuse projects. Real (and perceived) risks associated with different reuse scenarios are identified considering their applicability in the UK. Risk to human health is a primary concern, closely followed by the risks to the environment from changes in water flow and composition.
This report sets out existing frameworks for managing and mitigating risk, governance issues, and the factors that influence the energy and carbon demands of reuse systems as well as the cost implications.

Framework for Developing Water Reuse Criteria with Reference to Drinking Water Supplies

Ref: 05/WR/29/1            Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 368 6

Reclaimed water, obtained by the appropriate treatment of wastewater, is a valuable resource that can be deployed by water utilities to augment drinking water supplies through indirect potable reuse or substitution.  The objective of this study was to develop a framework that offers water suppliers the likelihood of more widespread acceptance of the common practice of using treated and blended wastewater as a raw water source to be treated for drinking water and as a replacement for current uses of drinking water.


The framework provides a consistent basis for the development of appropriate and verifiable standards and guidelines at local, regional and national levels.  It incorporates the latest principles of risk management and risk assessment based on pathway/risk endpoint.  The framework takes into account fully the increasing role of stakeholders and the need for reassurance regarding human and ecosystem health.


The report sets out a high level framework that may be used as a road map to define the key issues and data requirements of a potential application for reclaimed water.  Underpinning the high level framework is a series of models that address in more detail the steps entailed when evaluating specific reuse applications.  Case studies are used to illustrate how the framework may be applied when reuse schemes are developed and implemented.