UKWIR maintains and is constantly adding to, an extensive library of reports which are deliverables from our research programme. Reports Catalogues are created to illustrate the reports that have been produced in each of UKWIR's research topic areas. These reports are freely available to UKWIR subscribers and they may be purchased from the UKWIR website by non-subscribers
Wastewater Treatment & Sewerage
Achieving Zero Harm From Plastics Via Water Industry Operations and Activities. Phase 1
Ref: 19/EQ/02/2 Price: £24
The aim of this project was to help identify the key research gaps, challenges and priorities relating to the source, fate and potential impact of microplastic particles in regards to the water industry’s activities and operations.
The project started with a brief, desk-based literature review to provide a baseline to inform future discussions. The findings from the review were then validated and further developed via a series of interviews with a representative sample of stakeholders from the water industry, its regulators and academia.
The outputs of these two activities were then used to inform the structure and content of a route mapping workshop attended by the water industry, its regulators and academia to further define and prioritise the key research challenges. This resulted in the production of a research route map which is included in the report.
Wastewater Treatment Works Flow to Full Treatment - Monitoring and Compliance Assessment Method Development
Ref: 18/WW/21/17 Price: £350
ISBN: 1 84057 865 3
Many Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW) have MCERTS flow monitoring equipment at the works outlet only, which poses difficulties for assessing compliance with discharge permit conditions for Flow to Full Treatment (FFT).
We investigated the range of measurement arrangements currently in use, and their implications for FFT compliance assessment. Water companies and Regulators were consulted on their views regarding the potential (and need) for alternative FFT compliance assessment methods.
Two alternative methods (driven by flow and EDM data) were developed and applied. Approach 1 involved comparing durations of storm weir spill events and durations for which associated effluent flows exceed a FFT consent threshold. Approach 2 involved determining the level at which effluent flow reaches a plateau during storm weir spill events.
The feasibility of using static flow surveys to determine FFT compliance is also discussed.
Coastal and Estuarine Bacteria Loads for Source Apportionment
Ref: 16/WW/11/14 Price: £200
ISBN: 1 84057 817 3
The causes of poor bathing water and shellfish water quality represent a significant challenge for the UK water industry. This project has assessed the abundance of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in estuarine waters and sediments, with a particular focus on ‘viable but non-culturable’ (VBNC) bacteria, and on viruses. Two study areas were selected for sampling - the Ribble and Conwy estuaries. The results suggest that the VBNC fraction of FIOs in sediments may be significant, especially in the winter. Small quantities of Norovirus were only found at two sampling points in the Ribble, and in the winter only. Results also indicated that cohesive sediments harbour more bacteria than non-cohesive sediments and the water column. This work has proposed practical recommendations for improving the existing monitoring and modelling framework, which will assist the UK water industry in making more efficient investment planning decisions to improve coastal/estuarine water quality.
Verification of Bacteroidetes Microbial Source Tracking with Emperical Ground Truth Data
Ref: 08/WW/11/12 Price: £19
ISBN: 1 84057 527 1
This study reports a 'field-scale' test of the emerging technique of microbial source tracking (MST). The project acquired 'ground-truth' data to test the operational utility of Bacteroidetes MST data. The work has resulted in a very significant data set which is believed to be the largest collected to-date world-wide. This allows a comparison of Bacteroidetes MST data with standard faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations in streams, effluents and bathing waters.
Evaluation of T90 Decay Rates for a Range of Micro-organisms Indicative of Sewage Contamination: Phase 2 - Building and Validation of Predictive Models
Ref: 07/WW/11/11 Price: £25
ISBN: 1 84057 440 2
The sunlight-induced inactivation of bacterial indicator organisms, F-specific bacteriophage and poliovirus 2 was investigated in a series of experiments.
An artificial light source was used to irradiate a range of sewage-spiked waters formulated to provide a pertinent range of temperature, turbidity and salinity combinations. Inactivation curves were generated for each of the microorganisms (primary linear model). Enterococci were the most resistant.
Although all primary model fits were excellent, secondary models (predictive equations) were fitted with varying degrees of success. The faecal coliform data produced the best fit, but enterococci inactivation rates could not be modelled. The heterogeneity of the enterococci group, their cell physiology and their propensity to occur in chains were identified as potential sources of variability in their response to light-mediated inactivation.
The validity of the predictive equations was assessed by producing inactivation data using natural waters and light and comparing them with predictions from the models. For faecal coliforms, there was a consistent correlation between observed and predicted values. No equivalent correlation was observed for the other microorganisms. When the artificial light was replaced with natural sunlight, the fit was poor for all the microorganisms.
Preparation for a New Bathing Water Directive: Costing the Second Reading Amendments of the Proposed Revisions to the Bathing Water Directive
Ref: 06/WW/11/10 Price: £14
ISBN: 1 84057 398 8
A study into the potential costs of the new Bathing Waters Directive was undertaken in 2003. Following progress with the new Directive, standards have been clarified, and as such a further study was required to understand the cost implications of the final version of the Directive.
Evaluation of T90 Decay Rates for a Range of Micro-organisms Indicative of Sewage Contamination: Phase I - A Review of Documented Historical Laboratory-Based Studies and Field Applications
Ref: 04/WW/11/9 Price: £22
ISBN: 1 84057 353 8
The study aims to describe the decline of microbial indicator organisms and enteroviruses in water under natural conditions in which all relevant variables, in particular solar radiation, are either measured or controlled. The first phase of the study was to carry out a comprehensive literature review to determine and finalise protocols for the experimental work.
Preparation for a New Bathing Water Directive
Ref: 03/WW/11/8 Price: £14
The European Commission has proposed a new Bathing Waters Directive which, when adopted, will have significant impacts on the UK water industry. These impacts have been assessed and a methodology for assessing individual costs developed. The major implications for the UK water industry will be to deal with intermittent discharges, with total costs ranging from £30 to £750 million depending on the approach taken to achieve compliance. Other issues need careful management too, for example the impression that the new Directive will give the public that bathing water quality is declining whereas in reality it is improving.
Review of the Fate of Enteroviruses and Indicator Organisms in the Environment
Ref: 03/WW/11/7 Price: £12
The study reviewed methods for evaluating decay rates (T90s) for enteroviruses and the faecal indicator organisms and developed an experimental design to quantify T90s in the marine and freshwater environment. Numerous studies have been carried out on decay rates of bacterial indicator organisms, but not on enteroviruses. A protocol to evaluate inactivation of enteroviruses and indicator organisms under natural conditions has been proposed. Solar simulator experiments would provide validation data under natural sunlight conditions. If successful, an in situ study would be used to validate the in vitro data.
Review of the Fate of Enteroviruses and Indicator Organisms across Wastewater Treatment Processes
Ref: 03/WW/11/6 Price: £16
Several wastewater treatment works were monitored to assess their performance in removing enteroviruses, coliforms, faecal streptococci and F coliphage across primary and secondary treatment processes. The processes selected were: activated sludge, biologically aerated flooded filters (BAFF), chemically assisted primary settlement (CAS) and oxidation ditch. The main findings were: · The operation and performance of a given process was probably site specific. · BAFF was potentially less effective than others in removing enteroviruses. · More enterovirus data were needed before firm conclusions on process performance can be made.
Relationships between Enterovirus, Salmonella and Bacterial Indicator Organisms in Bathing Waters
Ref: 02/WW/11/5 Price: £13
ISBN: 1-84057 275 2
Monitoring data collected for various purposes from 1986 to 1999, from 6 different sources and 22 bathing waters, were analysed to assess the relationships between enteroviruses and salmonella, and indicator bacteria (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci). The data showed that within a single site there was no useful relationship between enterovirus and indicator bacteria and between sites it was week. There was a relationship between Salmonella and indicator bacteria within a site, although variable from one year to the next, and this was fairly strong between sites, season by season. The findings are consistent with the interpretation that indicators show the presence of faecal matter and hence indicate the risk of enterovirus or Salmonella being present in bathing waters. The actual number of pathogens or faecal indicators will vary according to the tidal state, the water turbidity and weather conditions. A large number of samples, backed by standardised analysis using validated methods, would be needed to obtain reliable information on which policy decisions or alternative disposal strategies could be based. The low frequency monitoring programme to show compliance with the Bathing Waters Directive 1976 would be insufficient for this purpose.
EC Bathing Waters Directive Enterovirus Research
Ref: 99/WW/11/1 Price: £23
ISBN: 1 84057 163 2
This composite report sets out the findings of the four separate literature reviews carried out to identify current knowledge and gaps which may exist on enterovirus. The individual abstracts for each review are set out below. Review of Sources of Enteroviruses in the Environment. The sources and inputs of enteroviruses in the environment are reviewed in the context of the EU Bathing Water Directive. The virology, epidemiology and prevalence of enteroviruses in water is discussed and the types of materials investigated for enteroviruses in the environment are also considered. Research requirements to determine better the significance of enteroviruses in waterborne disease are highlighted. Review of Methods for the Isolation, Concentration, Identification and Enumeration of Enteroviruses. Methods for concentration and detection of enteroviruses from water, with special reference to methods used in the routine monitoring of recreational waters in respect of the EU bathing Water Directive, are reviewed. Deta
Investigation of Bathing Waters Classification Approaches
Ref: 01/WW/11/2 Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 217 5
Two complementary approaches for classifying bathing water as part of a revised Bathing Water Directive were trialled in 1999 in the UK, France and the Netherlands. The report analysed the findings of the USEPA/ WHO and French Vulnerability Profile approaches leading to a revised bathing water monitoring and assessment protocol. The revised protocol incorporated microbiological water quality monitoring and analysis, a beach characterisation (sanitary survey) and beach management options. The protocol will be further tested during the summer of 2000 throughout the European Union.
Performance of Storm Tanks and Potential for Improvements in Overall Storm Management - Phase 2
Ref: 07/WW/22/5 Price: £32
ISBN: 1 84057 469 0
Storm tanks have been an integral part of the sewage treatment process since the early 20th century, but to date however, their performance is poorly understood. The introduction of the Water Framework Directive may see the need for water companies to quantify, both in terms of flow magnitude and quality, all intermittent spills to receiving water courses. To do this it is required to better understand the pollutant retention efficiency of storm tanks. This report looks at the designs of storm tanks that are currently in use and reports on a series of field evaluations and laboratory tests which have been carried out to improve understanding of the flow regimes and the pollutant retention in the most common designs of circular and rectangular storm tanks. This data has been developed into a methodology which allows the prediction of the pollutant retention efficiency for a given design of storm tank under a range of conditions. The outputs from the research comprise a final report, a technical reference manual (07/WW/22/6) and an MS-Excel based tool - sold together as a set for £300.
Sewer Network & WwTW Integration
Ref: 07/WW/22/4 Price: £13
ISBN: 1 84057 441 0
Historically poor planning in how sewer networks and WWTWs work together to protect water quality can lead to an increased risk of non-compliance with effluent standards. Designing and operating the system as a whole, in an intelligent manner, can bring benefits to water companies and environmental regulators alike. This UKWIR project applies novel modelling techniques to represent each part of the urban drainage system and better understand the risks and benefits of an integrated approach. It also reports on state-of-the-art enabling technologies for urban drainage system integration.
Performance of Storm Tanks
Ref: 05/WW/22/2 Price: £29
ISBN: 1 84057 467 4
The primary aims of the project were to seek to influence the AMP4 priorities of the Environment Agency and to ensure that future investment would achieve the best value environmental benefit. Models of storm tank performance were developed to faciltate design and establish operational best practice, The outputs of the study were synthesized into a technical reference manual (Report Ref No 05/WW/22/3) supplied with this report. The project also examined technology based solutions that might serve as alternatives to storm tanks or, at least, enhance their performance. Further work is recommended to test and extend the methodology.
Estimation of Population Equivalent
Ref: 03/WW/22/1 Price: £14
The UWWTD defines population equivalent (PE) as a measurement of organic biodegradable load which shall be calculated on the basis of “the maximum average weekly load entering the treatment plant”. This project was designed to test the statistical properties of such PE calculations and compare them with PE estimates used for other reporting purposes. In making these comparisons, an understanding of the factors influencing PE estimation was developed together with an insight into the varying interpretations adopted by different Water Companies. Relative to the other methods analysed, the UWWTD method for estimating PE showed major practical difficulties and inconsistent results.
Combined sewer overflows
National CSO Test Facility Wigan WWTW: CSO Screen Efficiency 1997 - 2005
Ref: 06/WW/08/14 Price: £32
ISBN: 1 84057 404 6
The report describes a comparative performance analysis of over 30 proprietary CSO / Overflow Screens tested in either a side weir CSO chamber, an extended stilling pond chamber or as stand-alone devices at the National CSO Test Facility, Wigan Wastewater Treatment Works.
Performance evaluations were made to assess the process efficiency of each screen, expressed as 'screenings retention value', at a series of inflow magnitudes and ratios of continuation flow to inflow.
The report gives a technical description of each screen together with full test results and offers a comparison of equipment performance covering the various generic types of CSO screen currently available.
Intermittent Discharges - Environmental Review and Treatment Solutions
Ref: 02/WW/08/12 Price: £22
ISBN: 1 84057 256 6
Research was carried out into unconventional treatment options for Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) to find potential compact, reliable and cost-effective solutions to improve the quality of intermittent discharges. Future standards for discharges may dictate that storage or increased sewer capacity will not be satisfactory. No single wastewater treatment process is sufficient for all eventualities, but twelve processes were deemed technically and economically suitable for further consideration. The disadvantages and advantages of each of these processes in relation to treatment at CSOs were investigated. Most favoured processes are: ballasted lamella plate sedimentation for a large urban CSO; reed bed treatment for a small rural CSO; and chemical pre-treatment followed by UV disinfection for a CSO discharging into bathing waters. Pilot plant testing should be carried out in each case.
Characteristics of Sewage Particles
Ref: 01/WW/08/10 Price: £16
ISBN: 1 84057 230 2
The report combines the findings of two projects sponsored by UKWIR's CSO Research Group. One, by Sheffield Hallam University, carried out an evaluation process to categorise the different particulates in raw sewage and produce distributions of terminal velocities for each category. The second, by the University of Sheffield, evaluated the terminal velocity characteristics of the sewage particulates which enter the National CSO Test Facility at Wigan Wastewater Treatment Works, and monitored changes which occur due to the time of day and at different flowrates. The utilisation of the results of this project will increase confidence in the assessment of the separation efficiency of CSO chambers and unscreened novel devices. When implemented within design software, this will enable wastewater operators to adopt unscreened solutions, where appropriate, to minimise costs whilst satisfying aesthetic quality aspects of UCSO improvements.
Simplified Post Project Appraisal of CSO Performance
Ref: 01/WW/08/11 Price: £14
ISBN: 1 84057 235 3
In the past, the evaluation of combined sewer overflow (CSO) performance has been perceived as being expensive and difficult to achieve. Those costs and difficulties have militated against the widespread use of Post Project Appraisals. This study identifies simplified, low cost, methods of appraisal that are available for the performance of combined sewer overflows. These procedures should assist water service providers in: · demonstrating compliance with consent conditions, · demonstrating improvements in performance and · providing lessons to feed back into best design practices so as to improve the effectiveness of future investment and provide better value for money.
Flow Control Devices for CSOs
Ref: 99/WW/08/9 Price: £11
ISBN: 1 84057 186 1
The setting of a CSO structure is a primary design parameter. Ideally the flow control device which is used to restrict the flow to the treatment works should maintain a constant flow to the works irrespective of the depth of flow in the CSO chamber. This report describes a performance evaluation to evaluate the head discharge relationship for a conventional circular penstock, a Type CX Hydro International Hydrobrake flow control, a Steinhardt Vertical Hydroslide and a Biogest Alpheus Flow Limiter. The test programme was carried out at the National CSO Test Facility, Wigan Wastewater Treatment Works.
Scumboard Performance Analysis
Ref: 99/WW/08/8 Price: £9
ISBN: 1 84057 184 5
A performance evaluation was carried out to assess the influence on the total solids retention efficiency and the water depth in a side weir CSO chamber when changes were made to the position of a scumboard within the chamber. All tests were completed at the National CSO Test Facility at Wigan Wastewater Treatment Works. Similar measurements were made when a Rotomat ROK1 6mm mesh screen was installed horizontally to the downstream face of a side weir. Tests were completed with and without the scumboard in position for a series of inflow magnitudes and ratios of the continuation flow to inflow.
Event Logger Evaluation
Ref: 99/WW/08/7 Price: £11
ISBN: 1 84057 184 5
The report provides guidance in the selection, installation and use of event loggers for the assessment of combined sewer overflow performance. The effectiveness of different types of sensor has been tested in the field and the capability and ease of use of associated software has been assessed. Practical issues relating to installation, data retrieval and maintenance have been identified, together with logger capacity and cost of units.
Screen Efficiency (Novel Devices)
Ref: 99/WW/08/6 Price: £11
ISBN: 1 84057 183 7
This report describes the total solids retention efficiency of four innovative novel screen arrangements. These were, the Yorkshire Water Flexible Screen, the Thames Water Drum Screen, the Pipe screen with two different mesh types, and the North West Water Drum Screen. All tests were completed at the National CSO Test Facility, Wigan Wastewater Treatment Works. The report highlights the performance of each screen arrangement and identifies, where appropriate, the potential for the application of each screen in practice.
Using computational fluid dynamics to assess the impact of an anti- blockage device on the flow regime and solids retention efficiency of a stilling pond combined sewer overflow
Ref: 97/WW/08/3 Price: £12
ISBN: 1 84057 026 1
Uses a computational fluid dynamics model to investigate the flow pattern retention efficiency of a stilling pond combined sewer overflow chamber with and without an anti-blocking device. Examines the importance of the device's longitudinal position and of the related chamber's length.
A Procedure for Estimating Emissions of Pollution Inventory Substances from Wastewater Treatment Works
Ref: 14/WW/25/7 Price: £100
ISBN: 1 84057 716 9
The Pollution Inventory (PI) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the Scottish Pollution Release Inventory (SPRI) is the mechanism by which the regulatory agencies (the Environment Agency, Natural Resources Wales, Scottish Environment Protection Agency and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency) compile information and provide public access to the quantities of specific substances discharged to water, air and land. The Pollution Inventory estimator tool enables Water Companies to report their annual returns via an auditable method in the absence of routine monitoring data for a substance of interest. A number of changes have been made to the list of substances to be reported in 2014 onwards and the estimator tool has been updated to reflect these changes. The procedure described is expected to be used in conjunction with the updated estimator tool (version 7.0), with reference to the User Guide, both of which are included.
Identifying the Sources of Listed Substances in Diffuse Inputs to Sewage Treatment Works
Ref: 02/WW/25/2 Price: £18
This study aimed to establish which listed substances are present in diffuse inputs to sewage treatment works and to evaluate relative contributions. Results indicated that several heavy metals arise predominantly from domestic sewage and for these there appears to be little scope to reduce inputs. Specific organic substances or groups are identified as likely to be present in domestic, service trade and runoff inputs. Results from pilot studies provide confidence in the UKWIR/EA pollution inventory protocol predictions for metals but confirm that there is considerable uncertainty regarding estimates for inputs of organic substances. Some changes to the protocol are recommended.
Identification of the Source of Priority Substances in Sewage Catchments
Ref: 02/WW/14/1 Price: £22
ISBN: 1-84057 251 5
The respective contributions from trade effluents, domestic inputs and other diffuse sources of sixty-nine specified priority substances, eg List I and List II chemicals under the Dangerous Substances Directive, received at and discharged from wastewater treatment works were evaluated. The main sources of those compounds arising primarily from domestic and diffuse inputs were identified. A desk-top protocol to identify sources and predict potential discharges of priority substances was developed and trialled for the catchments of Camberley and Countess Wear (Exeter) wastewater treatment works.
Phosphorus speciation (ortho/total/SRP) - does it matter?
Ref: 17/WW/20/8 Price: £500
ISBN: 1 84057 843 2
Wastewater treatment works represent an important contributor to the phosphorus load in waterbodies. Analysis of data collected for the Chemical Investigations Programme indicated that metal dosing for phosphorus reduction has a significant impact on the relative proportions of Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP) and Total Phosphorus (TP) in effluent. Where dosing is applied the SRP/TP ratio can be as low as 30%, but can also be highly variable.
Analysis of field data from 10 catchments collected for this study indicated that phosphorus speciation in rivers is not the same throughout the catchment or throughout the year. The assumption that all reactive phosphorus is soluble is incorrect for areas with elevated iron, while higher in-river suspended solids levels lead to lower SRP/TP.
It is recommended that a clearly defined methodology for the determination of phosphorus in effluent and surface waters is established, and the link between SRP and biota is explored further.
Environmental Impact Assessment to Compare the Benefits of Achieving Tight BOD Standards Versus Increase in Whole Lifecycle Carbon
Ref: 14/WW/20/7 Price: £16
ISBN: 1 84057 726 6
There has been a drive by regulators to improve the quality of the aquatic environment, most recently in response to the Water Framework Directive. This has often been achieved through setting tighter permit limits on final effluent discharges from WwTW. Achievement of these tighter limits has been through increasing the degree of wastewater treatment, normally resulting in the use of higher carbon-impact treatment processes.
Sustainable Integrated Catchment Management for Phosphorus
Ref: 14/WW/20/6 Price: £15
ISBN: 1 84057 711 8
Phosphorus is a major cause for failure of rivers and lakes to meet standards set out in the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This is a significant challenge in the UK that needs to be addressed across multiple sectors.
Phosphorus Contributions from WwTW Discharges to Watercourses and their Long Term Impacts Relative to Other Sources
Ref: 12/WW/20/5 Price: £23
ISBN: 1 84057 652 9
The Water Industry is a major contributor to phosphorus discharges to the environment. By 2015 there will be over 650 wastewater treatment works (WwTW) in the UK with phosphorus consent levels driven by a number of EU Directives, including the Water Framework Directive. There has been considerable uncertainty with regards to derivation of the phosphorus environmental quality standard, which was initially derived as a supporting parameter to describe diatom ecological quality.
A Review of the Setting of Iron Limits for Wastewater Treatment Works Effluents
Ref: 11/WW/20/4 Price: £15
ISBN: 1 84057 582 4
Iron dosing at wastewater treatment works is used mostly to reduce effluent phosphorus concentrations in order to meet the requirements of European legislation. The existing iron Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) is currently under review. If the EQS value is reduced, a subsequent tightening of surface water discharge permits may result, which would have significant implications for the Water Industry.
SUDS - Increased Liability for the Water Industry - Phase 2
Ref: 06/WW/03/8 Price: £27
ISBN: 1 84057 417 8
This report is the second of 2 reports which investigate the liability risks associated with ownership of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS). The first report carried out a broad evaluation of the issues, and the second study then investigated those which were perceived as being the most important. Key topics were assessed as being:
the current state of existing software in being able to adequately represent SUDS.
Performance and Whole Life Costs of Best Management Practices and Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
Ref: 05/WW/03/6 Price: £26
ISBN: 1 94339 743 9
This report documents the performance and whole life costs of stormwater practices in the U.S. (Best Management Practices) and UK (Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems) aimed at reducing the impact of urbanisation.
The BMPs/SUDS selected for evaluation in this study include retention ponds, extended detention basins, vegetated swales, bioretention, porous pavements, and various infiltration practices.
The study included literature and database reviews, hydraulic modelling, site investigations and development of a whole-life cost model.
This report provides guidance on the selection, whole-life costing, design, and maintenance of BMPs/SUDS, which will improve confidence in their use and performance and lead to a more widespread and appropriate adoption of these systems.
Implications of Potential New Measures and Standards Required under the Water Framework Directive for Natura 2000 Sites
Ref: 04/WW/20/1 Price: £15
ISBN: 1 84057 367 8
The study identified and assessed designated habitat sites that were dependent on water and might require more investment and action by the UK water industry. The additional measures identified were extra nutrient removal from discharges, extra BOD/SS/ammonia removal from discharges, and abstractions. The implications for individual water companies depend on local circumstances and measures already adopted or planned.
WW03 Forecasting The Deposition and Biological Effects of Excess Organic Carbon from Sewage Discharges for the Purposes of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (DIR91/ 271/ EEC) BenOss Version 3
Ref: 99/WW/03/3 Price: £9
ISBN: 1 84057 169 1
BEN OSS Version 3 is a model, which will predict changes in the soft sediment benthic community in response to organic inputs. It produces an assessment of the amount of suspended solids (carbon) from a sewage outfall accumulating in the near vicinity of a domestic sewage outfall in terms of mass carbon unit area -1 time -1 . After calculating the amounts of deposition, the model then predicts what effect this will have on the benthic community.
Microbiological Inputs to the Environment from Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Works
Ref: 98/WW/07/1 Price: £11
ISBN: 1 84057 134 9
The pathogenic organisms found in sewage were reviewed, and those that should be tested include Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Cryptosporidium, Giardia and enteroviruses. A field survey methodology will quantify the microbiological inputs into controlled waters from sewage relative to other inputs. The study area should be surveyed, and sampling sites should be chosen using evidence of sources of contamination and tracer studies. Following the presence of pathogens over two years will allow for variations in epidimiology and weather.
Forecasting the Deposition and Biological Effects of Excess Carbon from Sewage Discharges
Ref: 96/WW/03/1 Price: £12
ISBN: 1 84057
A model (BenOss) has been developed which predicts organic carbon deposition on the seabed and associated changes in soft sediment benthic communities. Modules take into account the hydrodynamic regime of an area, primary production and dispersion, settlement, resuspension and degradation of organic carbon. Although the model was developed to allow comparative prediction of the impact of primary and secondary treated sewage effluent on marine benthic ecosystems, it has a wider application and can be used to assess the impact of any organic matter discharge made to sea.
A Rainfall-Independent Approach to Calculating Treatment Flows at WwTW
Ref: 12/WW/23/9 Price: £21
ISBN: 1 84057 638 3
Most wastewater treatment works discharge consents contain a Flow To Full Treatment (FTFT) condition that states that all flows up to a given flow rate must receive full treatment. The FTFT has been set historically on the basis of a calcuation from flow components, but recent advances in data collection provide an opportunity for an appropriate setting to be estimated from flow data.
A Review of the Effectiveness of Mogden Formula Charging when Meeting Modern Sewage Treatment Works Consents
Ref: 12/WW/23/8 Price: £13
ISBN: 1 84057 628 6
The project investigated potential disparities between the current trade effluent charging mechanism (the Mogden formula) and the costs associated with trade effluent management and treatment. The study demonstrated that the Mogden formula continues to serve the purpose of equitably charging for the reception and treatment of trade effluents. Strong evidence supports the view that the approach to charging for ammonia should be reviewed by the Water and Sewerage Companies to ensure investment cost recovery in the future. There is also a potential future need to charge for the acceptance of trade effluent containing zinc.
Wet Weather Definition and Impact on Planning and Regulatory Reporting
Ref: 11/WW/23/7 Price: £19
ISBN: 1 84057 614 6
This report identifies and reviews the wet weather spill monitoring and recording methods employed by the UK water and sewerage companies. Analysis was undertaken of spill, rainfall, and treatment works flow data along with completed questionnaires on the water companies' practices.
Better Regulation:Integrated Catchment Regulation
Ref: 10/WW/23/6 Price: £24
ISBN: 1 84057 566 2
This project was established to identify options for the application of better regulation which should seek to improve the balance between the environmental gains in water quality through permitting and the potential economic and environmental costs. A number of themes of research were advanced including seasonal consenting, real time control and the scoping of the future requirements for modelling.
Methodologies for Catchment Based Consents
Ref: 08/WW/23/5 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 516 6
The project investigated how best to identify where, when and how wastewate treatment should be improved; and, how future performance should be monitored. A SIMCAT model was used to examine the potential benefits of catchment based consenting to the Water Industry. The results from twenty two scenarios, focused on changes to Water Industry assets, were compared in terms of WwTWs consents, overall catchment loads, and the length of river passing WFD standards. A key conclusion was that achieving full compliance with these standards would not be possible by consent tightening alone, nor would it be cost-effective. A catchment modelling approach to consenting is likely to produce less onerous consents that a single site approach. The full benefits of a catchment modelling approach will only be achieved by linking water industry asset management strategies, natural catchment characteristics and the potentil benefits of controls on other sources of pollution. It was recommended that a further range of model scenarios should be tested to show the wider benefits of an integrated catchment consenting approach and to illustrate 'best practice' for catchment modelling.
Characterisation and Treatment of Water Industry Waste Streams for Landfill Disposal
Ref: 06/WW/23/4 Price: £16
ISBN: 1 84057 414 3
Emerging legislation controlling the handling and disposal of wastes will have a major impact on the UK Water Industry. Landfill waste acceptance procedures have been introduced and non-hazardous wastes will require pre-treatment prior to landfilling from October 2007. Following a review of waste streams generated by the Water Industry, the main focus of this work was to provide a characterisation dataset on the priority waste streams of sewer grit and sewage screenings. A UK-wide sampling and testing programme was carried out to encompass the major sources of variability in these waste streams and provide basic characterisation information as required for landfill acceptance. An assessment of existing treatment processes was undertaken to identify those that could meet pre-treatment requirements for landfill.
The Impact of Recent Changes in Waste Legislation on Sewerage Networks and Wastewater Treatment Works
Ref: 05/WW/23/3 Price: £17
The landfill disposal route for many wastes will be increasingly restricted in future, affecting both wastes received by, as well as the disposal of wastes produced by, the Water Industry. Changes in legislation controlling the handling and disposal of wastes, both liquid and solid, will have an impact on the operation of sewerage systems and wastewater treatment works in the UK. This study identifies and assesses the impacts of these changes and recommends a number of mitigation measures that the Water Industry could adopt to reduce the impact of wastes discharged to the sewerage networks.
Comparison of Member State Implementation and Reporting of Five Waste Water Related European Council Directives
Ref: 01/WW/23/1 Price: £17
ISBN: 1 84057 245 0
Adoption and implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment, Dangerous Substances, Shellfish Waters, Freshwater Fish and Bathing Water Directives are compared between the EU Member States.
A Guide to Modelling Intermittent Discharges
Ref: 14/WW/17/17 Price: £23
ISBN: 1 84057 749 5
This report provides an up-to-date and accessible guide to modelling intermittent discharges (i.e. combined sewer overflows, storm tanks and pumping station overflows). It is aimed primarily at water managers and asset planners in water companies who commission work from specialist modellers and authorise investment plans based on the results. It will also be useful for anyone who wants to gain an overview of current practice in the UK.
The guide describes a four stage process to modelling intermittent discharges: defining the problem, selecting an approach, applying the model, and analysing uncertainty. Each stage is broken down into a series of steps, which discuss critical decision points and summarise current good practice within the UK water industry.
A checklist at the end of each stage highlights key issues to be agreed between those responsible for building water quality models and those that use and interpret the model outputs.
Risk Based Prioritisation of Pharmaceuticals
Ref: 14/WW/17/16 Price: £17
ISBN: 1 84057 735 5
A range of pharmceuticals has been detected in the natural environment across the world. Concerns have therefore been raised over the potential effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the environment on human and environmental health and , over the past 15 years, a substantial amount of work has been undertaken to determine the occurrence, fate, effects and risks of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The aim of this project was to provide the UK water industry with a priority list of pharmaceuticals to indicate the contribution from wastewater treatment and help inform UK policy. Environmental exposure of the most used pharmaceuticals in primary and secondary care, plus some compounds considered an environmental hazard was compared to relevant environmental effects data and the compounds prioritised to identify those where attention should focus. The data was used to select pharmaceutical compounds for the second Chemical Investigations Programme and two priority lists of pharmaceuticals were generated for further consideration by the wastewater industry.
The primary priority list contained fifteen compounds that demonstrated an environmental risk during the prioritisation. The secondary list contained twenty-five compunds that demonstrated the possibility of environmental risk when associated prioritisation uncertainty was considered.
Alternative Approaches to Bacterial Reduction for WwTW Discharges: Phase 2 Field Trials and UV Desk Study
Ref: 13/WW/17/15 Price: £21
ISBN: 1 84057 698 7
EU Legislation has driven continuous wastewater discharge disinfection focussing on UV treatment. Reducing spills of intermittents by providing storage has been the normal approach.
This study proposes determining disinfection requirements on a site specific basis. The approach links the UV 'validated' dose to the microbial reduction achieved. The benefit of this approach is to achieve a reactor design validated against the microbial reduction required.
Benefits include: better targeted investment, supported by evidence; minimised capital and operating costs through better understanding of carbon costs associated with UV irradiation; demonstration of the methodology enabling production of site specific evidence to support a flexible, consistent approach to the disinfection of discharges; ability to meet revised bathing water directive targets and reduce the risk of EU infractions and beach closures; applicability of the protocol to intermittent discharge disinfection.
Catalytic Oxidation of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater Effluents
Ref: 13/WW/17/14 Price: £17
ISBN: 1 84057 689 8
Pharmaceuticals have been identified as a group of chemicals of concern in wastewaters due to growing regulatory pressures on river water quality. Recent assessments of advanced treatment technologies (Granular activated carbon and Ozonation) have shown them to be prohibitively expensive both financially and environmentally. This research investigated the ability of iron based catalysts (Fe-TAML) to reduce concentrations of a range of steroids, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater. Results demonstrate that using Fe-TAML catalysts is an effecive treatment for most of the steroids and pharmaceuticals tested. Following further optimisation, TAML may provide a low capex cost and flexible addition to wastewater treatment.
Emerging Technologies for Removing Pharmaceutical Compounds from Wastewater Effluents
Ref: 13/WW/17/13 Price: £13
ISBN: 1 84057 686 3
This study reviewed the potential of emerging technologies to treat pharmaceuticals of concern, as identified by the Chemical Investigations Programme steering group, and meet future potential obligations with more cost-effective, 'carbon friendly' treatment options than those currently available. The study identified eight technologies that could potentially effectively treat a wide range of pharmaceuticals. These technologies were evaluated with respect to integration within sewage treatment works and estimated whole life costs and ranked based on these criteria. The ranking identified three technologies (based on ultrasonic enhanced ozone oxidation, ultrasound enhanced ultraviolet radiation and carbon adsorbants) recommended for further investigation.
Alternative Approaches to Bacterial Reduction for WwTW Discharges: Phase 1, Desk Study
Ref: 12/WW/17/12 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 640 5
This project studies a range of wastewater disinfection technologies in a search for a low carbon method for achieving bacterial reduction in discharges to Shellfish and Bathing Waters. It concludes that there are no alternative technologies currently available which could dramatically reduce the carbon footprint associated with disinfection.
Scoping Study for the Chemicals Investigation Programme (Dangerous Substances and Priority Hazardous Substances/ Priority Substances under the Water Framework Directive)
Ref: 10/WW/17/11 Price: £10
ISBN: 1 84057 561 1
Control over a wide range of potential contaminants is an important requirement of the Water Framework Directive. To meet this requirement, the CIP has been designed to investigate the management and control of concentrations of Priority Substances. This project was established to support the efficient implementation of the CIP. The detailed requirements of the CIP were developed and refined. Recommendations for analytical targets and approaches to sampling were made; protocols were developed for data capture, data processing and interpretation. The project facilitated the launch of the CIP in April 2010, which aims to identify cost effective and fairly apportioned measures to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive.
Source Control of Phosphorus from Domestic Sources - Options and Impacts
Ref: 09/WW/17/10 Price: £15
ISBN: 1 84057 526 3
Phosphorus is the single most important substance preventing good chemical status under the Water Framework Directive for inland surface waters of the UK. In order to avoid costly, ineffective programmes of measures it is necessary to fully understand the sources of phosphorus in the environment and its impacts. The project identified and quantified (including a field study) the contribution of human, tap water dosing, automatic dishwashing and laundry sources of phosphorus to wastewater treatment works and reviewed the options for source control compared with end of pipe treatment in achieving WFD objectives.
Water Framework Directive: Sustainable Treatment Solutions for Achieving Good Ecological Status
Ref: 08/WW/20/3 Price: £14
ISBN: 1 84057 501 8
Implementation of the Water Framework Directive is likely to necessitate tighter effluent consent standards and more extensive wastewater treatment. The pursuit of the environmental target of higher final effluent quality may result in adverse impacts on other important aspects of the environment, such as greenhouse gas emissions. This project has provided the water industry with a spreadsheet tool to assess the sustainability impacts of achieving good quality ecological status under the Water Framework Directive via different treatment processes. The tool will enable water companies to better estimate the implications on sustainability indicators, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, resulting from the Water Framework Directive. This will be important for companies in helping predict more accurately the GHG emission changes affecting their business in forthcoming years and what implications these changes may have on meeting requirements of future carbon trading schemes.
Ribble SIMCAT Pilot Study - Assessment of Relative Contributions and the Impact of Control Measures on Water Quality
Ref: 07/WW/17/9 Price: £35
ISBN: 1 84057 489 5
The Water Industry identified an urgent need to quantify the water quality benefits of Programme of Measures (PoMs) applied to Water Industry discharges at 'end of pipe' and other, more diffuse, sources of pollution. This project was established to identify both the most cost effective ways to reduce both point and diffuse source nutrient/metal loadings to a water body and to identify how they compare in terms of costs and benefits. The study addressed the following objectives: quantifying pollution loads from point and diffuse inputs to the catchment from water company discharges, agricultural and urban runoff; developing and calibrating a SIMCAT model of the Ribble Catchment for BOD, Ammonia, Phosphate, TON and Copper based on the identified pollution loads; and, assessing the water qualtiy benefits that would arise from a range of individual and in-combination PoMs scenarios for both point source and diffuse pollution control.
The study used a SIMCAT model to demonstrate how observed data for rivers and effluents plus inputs for urban and non-urban diffuse loads generated by other modelling approaches can be used to assess the apportionment of pollution from different sources across a catchment. The results from the study have been provided to DEFRA and used in the preliminary Cost Effectiveness Analysis for England and Wales. In many respects the issues facing the Ribble Catchment are not atypical of other large catchments in England and Wales. The approach developed in carrying out the Ribble Catchment study can be transferred to other catchments.
Dangerous Substances and Priority Hazardous Substances/Priority Substances under the Water Framework Directive
Ref: 07/WW/17/7 Price: £31
ISBN: 1 84057 464 X
This latest report in the research programme on Dangerous Substances and Priority Hazardous Substances/Priority Substances under the Water Framework Directive has developed the understanding of the sources, quantities, removal and risk posed to the Water Industry by these substances.
Dangerous Substances and Priority Hazardous Substances/ Priority Substances under the Water Framework Directive: Initial Report: A Comparison between Options and Costs for Source Control Versus End-of
Ref: 07/WW/17/6 Price: £14
ISBN: 1 84057 435 6
The work reported here is an extension to the UKWIR WW/17 project and has been co-funded by UKWIR, OFWAT, the Environment Agency and Defra. The report provides an overview of the environmental, social and economic implications of tackling pollution at source (for the substances for which Environmental Quality Standards are likely to be introduced under the Water framework Directive) compared with installing additional sewage treatment. The study has taken into account existing and proposed legislation to ensure that cost projections take into account, and reflect the current, medium-term (2015) and long-term (2027) percentage reductions in emmissions required to comply with the WFD.
Priority Hazardous Substances, Trace Organics and Diffuse Pollution (Water Framework Directive): Urban Catchment Study and Assessment of Diffuse Inputs
Ref: 04/WW/17/3 Price: £14
This report has been produced as part of a research programme to improve the water industry's understanding of the presence of priority substances in sewage. Foul water and runoff samples were taken from locations in housing estates, the town centre and a light industrial estate in an urban catchment. Results confirm that certain groups of priority substances arise from diffuse sources, including housing estates, and are ubiquitous in wastewater. Substances are identified which would cause most concern to the water industry if proposed EC sludge limits and draft water quality standards being proposed in the Water Framework Directive are implemented.
Priority Hazardous Substances, Trace Organics and Diffuse Pollution (Water Framework Directive):Treatment Options and Potential Costs
Ref: 04/WW/17/5 Price: £24
This is the final report of the WW17C research programme which aimed to improve the water industry's understanding of Water Framework Directive priority substances in sewage. The results of sampling studies from earlier stages of the programme are summarised and used, in conjunction with a review of the fate of priority substances in wastewater treatment, to assess potential treatment costs. If end of pipe treatment is required as the main control measure for priority substances then, based on the quality standards being proposed, the additional whole life cost for England and Wales alone could be in excess of £6billion.
Priority Hazardous Substances, Trace Organics and Diffuse Pollution (Water Framework Directive): Surface Water Drains and Intermittent Discharges from Sewer Networks
Ref: 04/WW/17/4 Price: £12
This report has been produced as part of a research programme to improve the water industry’s understanding of the presence of priority substances in sewage. Discharges of priority substances from surface water drains, domestic septic tanks and storm and emergency releases from sewer networks were assessed. The dilutions that are required to meet EQS are generally fairly low. In some cases discharges may occur during storms before river flows have built up. However, it is probable that in many cases additional control measures may not be merited based on considerations relating to priority substances alone.
Priority Hazardous Substances, Trace Organics and Diffuse Pollution (Water Framework Directive): Screening Study and Literature Review of Quantities in Sewage, Sludge and Effluent
Ref: 04/WW/17/2 Price: £20
This report has been produced as part of a research programme to improve the water industry’s understanding of the presence of priority substances in sewage. Priority substances were analysed in samples taken from 30 wastewater treatment works across England and results have been compared with a comprehensive literature review. This study highlights the fact that certain groups of priority substances arising from diffuse sources are ubiquitous in wastewater. Substances are identified which would cause most concern to the water industry if proposed EC sludge limits and draft water quality standards being proposed in the Water Framework Directive are implemented.
Role of Wastewater Process Control in Delivering Operating Efficiencies
Ref: 13/WW/21/16 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 678 2
Improved control and optimisiation of wastewater treatment processes offers the potential for significant energy, chemical and carbon savings. In recent years, Advanced Process Control (APC) technologies have been trialled and installed by water companies and it is anticipated that the use of these systems will increase in the future. Using case studies and theoretical models, this project examined the impact APC may have on the receiving water, addressing concerns by the regulator relating to discharging less variable effluent with a potential increased load.
The Relationship between Per Capita Consumption and Wastewater Flows
Ref: 12/WW/21/15 Price: £24
ISBN: 1 84057 660 X
Water saving measures may have an effect on per capita consumption (PCC) and hence on the volume of wastewater generated (DWF); however the relationship between PCC and DWF is not fully understood. Modification to WwTW design criteria without defining the relationship introduces environmental risk and/or potential premature expenditure by water utilities.
Economic Level of Service for Sewer Blockages
Ref: 10/WW/21/14 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 568 9
Over 160,000 sewer blockages are reported each year in England & Wales; or about 0.5 blockages per kilometre of sewer per year. These lead to a wide range of service failures including property flooding and pollution. About 75% of the blockage management activity is in reaction to failures, although the amount of proactive work to prevent blockages has increased in recent years.
Evaluating Process Based Control as a Management and Regulatory Tool for the Water Sector
Ref: 10/WW/21/13 Price: £17
ISBN: 1 84057 554 9
The Environment Agency's new Operational Risk Appraisal (OPRA) approach offers the water sector and the EA an opportunity to develop Process Based Control (PBC) principles as an alternative to final effluent quality monitoring as a means of regulation. This project provides the water sector with information on the likely nature and impact of the proposed changes in regulation and points the way to the establishment of an agreed and cost effective approach to PBC. The report covers: the Regulator's position and expectations; current PBC practice within the UK water sector and beyond; a review of potential parameters and types of PBC; a comparison between compliance with existing regulatory sampling and continuous monitoring; and practicalities, cost benefits and scenarios.
Investigations into Flow Regimes at Sewage Treatment Works (Parts 1 & 2)
Ref: 08/WW/21/11 Price: £30
ISBN: 1 84057 493 3
UKWIR commissioned a three part project, investigating flow regimes in sewerage networks and at sewage treatment works.
Part 1 of the project set out to determine if the measured (Q80) DWF at sewage works can be related to the theoretical industry standard formula PG+I+E, using a set of explanatory variables.
Part 2 looked at how flow to full treatment (FFT) is currently set within the industry and investigated viable alternatives to the current 3PG+I+3E theoretical definition from both a reulatory and design standpoint. This included a specific evaluation of the role of infiltration. Following on from this, part 2 then set out to develop a methodology for evaluating the total (flow / load) impact of a sewage works on the receiving environment to provide an alternative impact based methodology for setting FFT.
Part 3 of the work reviewed previous work on understanding infiltration (including inflow) and its impact on the sewage works and sewer system, From this, it set out to establish robust and reliable techniques for identifying where high infiltration flows affect levels of service for a sewage works or sewer system, along with the associated causes. To address level of service deficiencies, the project also included associated technical guidance on where and when each of the methods would be appropriate and practical, including an associated cost benefit toolkit, to allow whole life costing of potential solutions.
This report covers Parts 1 and 2 of the project and is supplied together with 08/WW/21/12 (Part 3) for £100.
Best Practice for Flow Data Flagging
Ref: 08/WW/21/10 Price: £22
ISBN: 1 84057 479 8
Water companies are required to measure, and report to the Environment Agency, the volumes of effluent discharged from wastewater treatment works. This data is used for assessment of compliance with consent limits and broader catchment management. As well as the numerical data, the Agency has stipulated that flags relating to the quality of that data should also be reported. This project was commissioned by UKWIR, and supported by the Agency, to assist with the development of rules for flagging and reporting flow data. The report sets out a robust , practical methodology for flagging flow data that is acceptable to the Agency and ensures that data are reported to a satisfactory level of quality. It starts from the premise that water companies are collecting 15-minute data for this application, though it is acknowledged that this is not always the case and the implicatiosn of other approaches are discussed. The project also provides an understanding of how incomplete flow information affects the calculation of daily flow values and reported statistics, such as dry weather flow.
Dangerous Substances in Discharges: Setting Consent Conditions and Assessing Compliance
Ref: 07/WW/21/9 Price: £24
ISBN: 1 84057 429 1
Applying Maximum Limits (MLs) to Dangerous Substances (DSs) in Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTWs) effluents poses problems. This report describes work for UKWIR and the Environment Agency to quantify effluent variability and propose consenting alternatives.
A three-element alternative is proposed: a 95%ile for routine control, a 99.5%ile to address the skewness of DS distributions, and an absolute maximum for legal reasons. The performance of each element is investigated.
The Project Steering Group recommends the following approach, the practical implications of which are described in the report:
Limits on each DS at a WwTW:
Applied to pooled DSs at a WwTW:
The Efficacy of Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems in Removing Faecal Indicator Bacteria
Ref: 05/WW/21/7 Price: £16
This project sought to determine the efficacy of natural systems in removing faecal indicators The most effective systems achieve Escherichia coli concentrations in the range 102-103 cfu 100ml-1 which is comparable to UV treatment. However, there is little data on attenuation during normal changes in flow. The systems studied included a horizontal reedbed, vertical reedbeds (which were relatively immature), a lagoon and integrated constructed wetlands (ICW). E. coli dry weather attenuation rates across the plants were found to vary between 70.2% and 99.8%. Corresponding wet weather attenuation varied between 55.8% and 99.9%. For enterococci, the dry weather attenuation varied from 61.12% to 99.8% and the wet weather attenuation varied from 3.9% to 99.8%. E. coli was attenuated more than intestinal enterococci. The integrated constructed wetland produced the highest attenuation of faecal indicator organisms followed by the retention lagoon, then the horizontal reedbed with the vertical reedbed producing the lowest attenuation.
Alternative Measures of Sewage Treatment Works Dry Weather Flow
Ref: 05/WW/21/6 Price: £22
ISBN: 1 84057 496 8
The current definition of sewage treatment works Dry Weather Flow (DWF) gives results with high year-on-year variability and cannot be calculated for a large proportion of data sets.
A wide range of alternatives are assessed against agreed selection criteria using over 3,000 works-years of validated flow data and nearly 2,000 works-years of associated rainfall data. A number are found to perform significantly better than the current definition, with percentile methods giving the best overall performance, and the 20th percentile of daily flows agreeing well on average with the summer DWF calculated by the existing method.
The implications of a change in definition have been assessed with regard to a wide range of issues, including consent compliance, funding via the Price Review, other consented flow parameters, and design.
The report provides a sound analytical basis for discussion and agreement between companies and regulators as to the preferred future approach.
A Literature Review of the Efficacy of Natural Systems in Removing Faecal Indicator Bacteria
Ref: 05/WW/21/5 Price: £12
ISBN: 1 84057 375 9
Two wetland types have been distinguished according to the presence of a free water surface. This feature determines the extent to which key processes, including oxygen diffusion and the balance of removal mechanisms between sedimentation and sieving, will operate. Removal of faecal indicator organisms and pathogens has been represented as a two step process, where initial retention is followed by elimination. Short-term by-pass and channelled flow, which might occur during storm-events, represents a potential problem to operational efficiency. Despite this fact, almost no intensive, event-based, sampled data exist. The majority of studies rely upon infrequent (weekly or longer) paired sampling of influent and effluent flows which are likely to be biased towards more stable flow conditions. Few data quantify seasonal changes to FIO and pathogen populations within individual wetlands. Thus, the principal data gap is event-based faecal indicator flux assessment to assess impacts on 'protected areas' such as bathing waters.
Detecting and Responding to Sewer Blockages
Ref: 04/WW/21/4 Price: £24
The report considers the occurrence and causes of sewer blockages and reviews current management practice in the context of regulatory developments. A general specification is provided for a blockage detection system, including requirements for installation, maintenance, safety, reliability and cost. Potential monitoring parameters are reviewed and available sensor technologies are considered with particular focus on level and pressure monitoring. Communications options are reviewed, including systems architecture and telemetry integration. A methodology is described for assessing the costs and benefits of alternative approaches to blockage management, and calculations are provided in a spreadsheet. The cost benefit analysis is applied to eight case studies. An assessment is made of the market for sewer blockage detection equipment. The report concludes that subject to further development by suppliers and successful field trials, on-line detection of sewer blockages offers a technically feasible and cost-effective approach to the management of sewer blockages and their consequences.
Measurement of Low Flows at Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW)
Ref: 01/WW/21/1 Price: £19
ISBN: 1-84507 237 X
By 2005 the Environment Agency policy on flow measurement will require the Industry to measure wastewater treatment works flows >= 50 m3/d with an uncertainty of +/- 8%. This project was designed to evaluate a range of technologies under typical installation and operating conditions on a small works, to determine their ability to meet the requirements of the policy and establish limits of detection and accuracy under a range of flow conditions. The outputs from the work would will both inform discussions with the EA on the policy and support the Industry in determining the most appropriate choice of measurement system.
Virus Sensitivity of the Plaque Assay Technique
Ref: 01/WW/11/4 Price: £11
ISBN: 1 84057 250 7
Bovine, ovine and porcine enteroviruses were inoculated into liquid culture of BGM cells. Several strains grew and were further analysed for their plaque-inducing potential in BGM cells. None of the bovine strains induced plaque formation but one porcine and one ovine strain produced clear plaques after three days incubation.
Evaluation of Matrix Effect during the Analysis of Enteroviruses in Wastewater, Natural Waters and Sediments
Ref: 01/WW/11/3 Price: £12
ISBN: 1 84057 249 3
The recovery of virus from wastewater was good and was not affected by the individual matrix. The recovery of virus from sediments was poor and related to the physical properties of clay and sand. Natural waters had a variable recovery of virus that may relate to the matrix. Further research is identified to investigate the factors governing recovery from sediment and natural water.
A Framework for Cost Benefit Analysis in Odour Control Projects
Ref: 08/WW/13/9 Price: £17
ISBN: 1 84057 517 4
The report sets out a framework for undertaking cost benefit analysis of odour abatement measures at waste water treatment works. It describes different research approaches for valuing the user benefits of odour abatement, based on research at six case studies sites in England. Benefits were assessed through stated preference techniques (both willingness to pay and willingness to accept formats), and a revealed preference assessment based on house price values. The reduction in odour emissions at each of the sites was predicted using odour dispersion modelling techniques. The report sets out a recommended method for undertaking cost benefit analysis, using a willingness to pay approach, which was the only method to produce a statistically reliable valuation of benefit. A worked example is provided, along with other recommendations on further development of analytical techniques in this area.
Best Practicable Means (BPM) - A Guidebook for Odour Control at Wastewater Treatment Works
Ref: 06/WW/13/8 Price: £21
ISBN: 1 84057 415 1
This Guidebook has been written specifically to assist Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW) operators to select the means to abate nuisance caused by odour from their works. It provides guidelines for an odour management hierarchy, ranging from prevention to treatment and also provides a framework for selecting Best Practicable Means (BPM) according to local circumstances. It is one of a series of documents giving guidance on odour control at WwTW and should be read in conjunction with Defra's Code of Practice (CoP) on Odour Nuisance from Sewage Treatment Works. It describes factors that influence the generation and impact of odours from WwTW and provides guidance for dealing with complaints and reducing emissions through the adoption of both baseline, and where necessary, more expensive enhanced measures.
Odour Standards for the Wastewater Industry
Ref: 04/WW/13/6 Price: £22
The scientific literature and documented case studies relating to odour nuisance from wastewater treatment processes have been reviewed, with a view to establishing a sound basis upon which a workable odour standard could be promulgated by the UK water service providers. A review and assessment of the current legislative controls over odour in England and the devolved administrations was also conducted, including examination of recent and ongoing legal actions. It is concluded that further work on human exposure-response relationships for wastewater odours would be needed in order to support development of a specific odour standard. At the present time, there is insufficient scientific evidence to allow confident adoption of an odour standard. Recommendations are included for possible future research work to support the further development of odour standards for wastewater treatment in the UK; together with an evaluation of risk-based assessment procedures and a detailed whole-life cost assessment.
Odour Control in Wastewater Treatment - A Technical Reference Document
Ref: 01/WW/13/3 Price: £28
ISBN: 1 84057 246 9
Malodours arising from sewage treatment and sludge handling activities can provoke customer complaints and lead to adverse media attention. In extreme cases they can affect the quality of life of those people who work or live close to the source. The UK water and wastewater service provides (WSP,’s) take the issue of odour seriously and recognise that the prevention and control of malodours is an essential part of the wastewater service. They have identified a need for a credible, reliable source of information that they can access for guidance on the subject of odour control. This Technical Reference Document (TRD) satisfies that need, providing in a single report comprehensive up-to-date source of information on odour control measures available to WwTW operators. The TRD consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the principles of odour formation, measurement and management. Part 2 describes in detail the practical methods available to control odours in wastewater treatment. The two parts togethe
Impact of Intermittent Discharges on the Microbiological Quality of Shellfish
Ref: 07/WW/18/1 Price: £50
ISBN: 1 84057 438 0
Laboratory and field investigations examined sewage effluent impact on microbiological shellfish hygiene parameters (faecal indicator organisms). Shellfish types examined were: wild mussels (Mytilus edulis) (all investigations) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) (laboratory only).
Engineering Biological Wastewater Treatment for The Removal of Hazardous Chemicals from Activated Sludge Plants
Ref: 17/WW/04/19 Price: £50
ISBN: 1 84057 847 5
The aim of this project was to assess if biological treatment processes at wastewater treatment works could be engineered to improve the efficiency of hazardous chemicals (HCs) removal.
In this case, the effect of the engineering process parameters Solids Retention Time (SRT), Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT), temperature on microbial diversity were studied to identify those conditions that were most conducive for microbial degradation of HCs.
Optimising the Balance Between Primary and Secondary Treatment - Report
Ref: 15/WW/04/18 Price: £37
ISBN: 184057 755 X
Realising financial value through energy generation from treatment of sewage sludge and optimising operational performance for wastewater plants are two key drivers for water utilities. Optimising the treatment process requires a balance of increased primary solids removal, reduced load on secondary treatment processes, and assessment of effect on biogas yield from treatment of those solids.
Outputs from optimisation studies will provide information to assess the business case for investing in operational activities to improve the biogas yield. UKWIR commissioned the development of a model that enables changes in primary sludge solids capture to be quantified. The model is a spreadsheet tool which allows the assessment of the impact of operational changes to primary treatment processes.
Site operational data are necessary to configure and validate the model, to establish the baseline conditions against which projected variations to the primary treatment process can be assessed. The model was tested (trialled) on two working UK WwTWs.
Technical Study into Heat Sinks in Wastewater and Sludge Treatment
Ref: 12/WW/05/6 Price: £14
ISBN: 1 84057 621 9
The objective of this project was to investigate the potential for exploiting the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), a government economic incentive, as an additional revenue stream within the wastewater and sludge treatment industry.
The Performance of Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Works Solutions
Ref: 11/WW/04/16 Price: £11
ISBN: 1 84057 585 9
The records of 12 UK water companies were searched for performance data repating to sustainable wastewater treatment technologies, and questionnaires regarding maintenance and compliance were sent to site operators.
The Implications of Cold Weather on Nitrification Treatment Processes
Ref: 11/WW/04/15 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 580 8
There are concerns that, as a result of revisions to ammonia effluent quality requirements, WwTWs in the UK may not be able to comply with more stringent permits for ammonia during extreme cold weather conditions when their nitrification capability is compromised by the reduced activity of nitrifying bacteria. This project collated data on cold weather performance to re-assess the consented 'unusual weather' clauses and thereby allow informed debate with environmental regulators over revised exemption criteria or seasonal consents. The study has shown that in the UK, unusually low wastewater temperatures occurred at over 35% of WwTWs during the winters of 2008/09 and 2009/10. When wastewater temperatures dropped below 5deg C, WwTW effluents exhibited increases in ammonia concentrations of up to 2 mg/l N. The recovery period from a low-temperature process upset takes between 1 week and 1 month and has the potential to place many UK WwTWs at risk of consent failure following a cold weather event. Other EU countries tend to apply relaxed ammoniacal-nitrogen standards to take account of cold weather. This puts the UK Water Industry at a major disadvantage compared to other EU countries.
Maximising the Value of Biogas: Volume 1 - Summary Report
Ref: 09/WW/05/4 Price: £32
ISBN: 1 84057 534 4
Biogas is often used by the UK Water Industry in combined heat nad power plants. However, advances in technologies for biogas production, treatment and use, combined with new financial incentives for different forms of renewable energy, may make alternative uses of biogas more attractive. Optimisation of biogas production and uses will also help the water industry mitigate its climate change impacts.
Disinfection of Storm Sewage Discharges
Ref: 05/WW/04/11 Price: £14
The review evaluated the evidence for the satisfactory performance of storm sewage disinfection techniques as an alternative to increased storm sewage storage and subsequent return to full treatment. A review of the effectiveness of a range of alternative disinfection technologies, including pre-treatment requirements, has identified UV irradiation technologies and chlorination as the technologies with the greatest potential. Interpretation of a storm sewage trial (United Utilities) and a microwave UV irradiation trial (Yorkshire Water) were included in the review.
Sustainable WWTW for Small Communities Vol I: Sustainability and the Water Industry (Part Of Set)
Ref: 04/WW/04/9 Price: £73
Sustainable development is of particular interest to the water industry which finds itself having to comply with increasingly stringent standards for wastewater effluent quality whilst being pressed to minimise the cost to the consumer. Treatment processes suitable for achieving these high standards of effluent quality are likely to involve increased costs, energy usage and greenhouse gas emmisions. These issues are particularly relevant to small wastewater treatment works which are more likely to be located in remote situations where the application of complex high-energy processes are probably inappropriate. Volume I discusses the background to sustainability considerations within the water industry and presents the framework for the methodology. Sold as a 2 Volume set for £400 with Volume II 04/WW/04/10
Review of Wastewater Disinfection Treatment Strategies - Final Report
Ref: 03/WW/04/5 Price: £17
A review was undertaken to identify recent UK and international developments in wastewater disinfection technologies for both continuous and intermittent discharges. Existing technologies include UV irradiation, submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR), chlorination, ozonation and constructed subsurface flow reedbeds. Potential new technologies include electro-disinfection, ultrasonics, gamma radiation and microwave irradiation. Each technology has been assessed and its possible advantages and disadvantages identified. A more detailed review has been undertaken for technologies that represent the most viable alternatives for operational application within the next 5 years, concentrating on developments in UV irradiation, MBR, ozonation and constructed subsurface flow reedbeds.
Metals Removal and Treatment
Ref: 03/WW/04/4 Price: £12
This study delivers a comprehensive review of the issues facing the Water Industry resulting from tighter regulations on the discharge or disposal of metals. The main benefits of the study are to provide technical and financial information to avoid ineffective investment and to ensure that appropriate treatment is properly funded. A comprehensive technology review is included that details the performance of conventional and other effluent and sludge treatment techniques. Alternatives to treatment are identified and costs compared to those of the treatment options.
Impact of Extended Storage on Sewage Treatment
Ref: 02/WW/04/3 Price: £31
Increased extended in-sewer storage may have consequential effects on downstream treatment plants. Problems may occur due to septicity, odours, screen blinding, high hydraulic loads, overloaded bioreactors, and increased sludge volumes. Nonetheless, consent failures are unlikely provided sewer and downstream treatment systems are designed and operated accounting for the potential interactions.
Tightening WwTW Emission Standards - A Review of the Treatment Technologies And Their Impact On Climate Change
Ref: 02/WW/04/1 Price: £19
ISBN: 1-84507 259 0
This study examines the feasibility of meeting tighter effluent quality standards at wastewater treatment works. The impact of these tight standards on energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs has been assessed. Performance of the different treatment technologies has been compared with respect to effluent quality, energy use, GHG emissions, costs, land use and sludge production. The results indicate that tight effluent quality standards can be achieved but there is a significant penalty in terms of increased GHG emissions and costs. The results of the study should allow the water industry to enter into an informed debate with the regulator regarding effluent quality and climate change issues.
Treatment Processes (Screens)
National Screen Evaluation Facility - Inlet Screen Evaluation Comparative Report (1999–2015)
Ref: 15/WW/06/10 Price: £28
ISBN: 1 84057 802 5
This report details the results of process performance tests performed at the National Screens Evaluation Facility, Chester-Le-Street STW, between March 1999 and December 2015 on a total of 59 Inlet Screens of different generic type, comprising 11 Bandscreens, 10 Finescreens, 27 Combined Screens, 8 Bar / Slotscreens and 3 Stepscreens, with nominal aperture size varying from 6 mm to 1 mm.
Wastewater Screenings Management
Ref: 15/WW/06/9 Price: £150
ISBN: 184057 767 3
Over ninety percent of waste water screenings are currently landfilled and disposal costs are rising. Screenings production has risen in recent years due to increasing population, improved screening methods and an increase in the use of so called 'flushable' wipes. Data collected for this project indicates that around 98000tpa (wet basis) is collected from WwTWs in the UK.
This project has collected new data on screenings production and composition which can be used to identify appropriate and beneficial management options. The approach described in the report allows the practical issues and applicability of selected treatment options to be assessed to ensure sound investment in process technology or screenings management solutions. Background data is provided on a wide range of relevant processes and technologies.
The Excel spreadsheet included with the report can be adapted with new supplier and cost data and used as a support tool for investment and management decisions.
National Screenings Treatment Equipment Test Facility - Screenings Treatment Equipment Evaluation - Comparative Report (2010-2014)
Ref: 15/WW/06/8 Price: £13
ISBN: 184057 754 1
This report details the performance evaluation of a total of 12 Wastewater Screenings Treatment Equipment units of different generic type (comprising 2 Screw Compactors, 9 Washer Compactors and 1 Tank Wash System) conducted at a purpose-built facility (now known as the National Screenings Treatment Equipment Test Facility - NSTETF) at Netheridge STW, Gloucester (Severn Trent Water).
A comparison has been made in terms of equipment condition, operation and maintenance, but the major report output is related to equipment process performance, where a single-figure comparator has been developed to meet a specific industry need / request. This is the Screenings Treatment Factor (STF) which designers, purchasers and specifiers will be using in a similar way to how the established Screenings Capture Ratio (SCR) is used to compare Inlet Screens.
Economic Assessment of Management Options for WwTW Wastes
Ref: 07/WW/06/6 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 450 X
Sewer grit and sewage screenings are generated in the preliminary stages of wastewater treatment, and most of this waste is currently landfilled. Increases in landfill disposal charges, the imposition of the landfill tax and the reduction in void space have made landfill disposal increasingly expensive. This project identified the costs and main feasibility issues associated with alternative disposal options. It quantifies the mass of grit and screenings produced by the UK water industry currently and the costs of disposal. It is intended to inform water industry members of the threats to continued landfill and to assist them in planning to respond proactively to those drivers. This is principally achieved through the assessment of alternative options and the economic assessment, delivered in the format of a worksheet model designed to be adapted and tailored by individual water companies. This report will aid the water industry in the forthcoming PR09 planning process.
Screenings: Quality and Quantity
Ref: 00/WW/06/3 Price: £18
ISBN: 1 84057 211 6
The report investigates the proportions and characteristics of the constituents of screenings and reviews them in the context of the EC Landfill Directive and the UK Government’s Waste Strategy. Quantifiable measures of screenings quality are developed, for use in determining the cost of disposal routes. The measures of screenings quantity and quality are used to produce a performance specification for screenings handling plant. Methods of collecting, preparing and testing samples are developed.
Urban Pollution Management
UKWIR’s Source Apportionment GIS Model (SAGIS): Version 3.0
Ref: 19/WW/02/10 Price: £600
ISBN: 978 1 84057 866 9
The SAGIS modelling system has become an integral part of the United Kingdom’s surface water quality planning process. SAGIS (in combination with SIMCAT) facilitates the development of plans to achieve compliance with Water Framework Directive objectives. The primary benefit of SAGIS is that it ensures the Water Industry is not targeting capital and carbon intensive treatment solutions to address pollution arising from other sectors, so ensuring that investment provides value for money for water customers. Furthermore, SAGIS promotes a constructive working relationship between Water Companies and Regulators through encouraging the sharing of models and data, thereby eliminating unnecessary duplication of effort. This project has made SAGIS compatible with the latest versions of SIMCAT and MPER, a new metal bioavailability discharge permitting tool. Together with new model calibration methodologies and documentation, these developments are the most significant since the original SAGIS development. Project benefits include increased functionality and future-proofing of SAGIS.
This report is available in a set with UKWIR's published reports on Chemical Source Apportionment, available for purchase together at a reduced price of £600.
Extending and Updating UKWIR's Pollution Source Apportionment Tool (2)
Ref: 18/WW/02/9 Price: £100
ISBN: 1 84057 851 3
The SAGIS-SIMCAT modelling system underpins a significant part of the Water Industry’s water quality investment planning through providing the ability to develop effective evidence-based Programmes of Measures whilst maintaining the ‘Polluter Pays Principle’. SAGIS-SIMCAT will serve as the regulatory agencies primary catchment planning tool until at least 2027. This project has delivered improvements to SAGIS in three key areas, namely; (1) functionality enhancements to improve the representation of catchment processes, (2) data enhancements to align SAGIS with the second cycle of River Basin Management Planning requirements, and (3) a series of catchment investigations focusing on Natura 2000 sites that provide an up-to-date view on model performance, an understanding of the sources of chemicals and options to minimise the risk to compliance with water quality objectives.
This report is available in a set with UKWIR's published reports on Chemical Source Apportionment, available for purchase together at a reduced price of £600.
Extending and Updating UKWIR's Source Apportionment Tool
Ref: 14/WW/02/8 Price: £100
ISBN: 1 84057 732 0
The Source Apportionment GIS (SAGIS) water quality model provides an apportionment of chemical concentrations by source for rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal waters. To date, the SAGIS model has been applied by regulatory authorities, by UKWIR project contractors and by individual water companies for a broad variety of purposes including asset management and infrastructure planning, catchment scale investigations, assessment of impacts on Habitats Directive sites, and for national appraisal of options to achieve compliance with WFD water quality standards.
In order to remain effective, a number of critical updates have been implemented to ensure the model databases reflect the latest information on pollutant inputs from point and diffuse agricultural sources. Other updates include a functionality enhancement that improves the representation of the relationship between diffuse input loads and river flows. A user community forum with a dedicated website has also been established, within which the SAGIS user community may share news and ideas.
This report is available in a set with UKWIR's published reports on Chemical Source Apportionment, available for purchase together at a reduced price of £600.
Chemical Source Apportionment under the WFD
Ref: 12/WW/02/3 Price: £12
ISBN: 1 84057 637 5
A GIS based tool (SAGIS) to apportion loads and concentration of chemicals to WFD water bodies has been developed to support river basin planning by the UK Water Industry and the Environment Agency to identify effective programmes of measures, whilst maintaining the 'polluter pays principle', thus ensuring a fair proportioning of responsibility for improving water qualiry across all responsible sectors.
WFD Requirements for Lakes, Transitional and Coastal Waters: Source Apportionment for Nutrients and Priority Chemicals
Ref: 13/WW/02/4 Price: £16
ISBN: 1 84057 743 6
The key objective of this project was to expand the existing SAGIS river tool for metals, organic compounds and nutrients to assess source apportionment in lakes, transitional and coastal waters (SAGIS-LaTraC) from all major point and diffuse sources, using available national datasets. Additional export load databases were developed for export of chemicals associated with lakes, transitional and coastal water bodies including inputs from wildfowl, anglers (i.e. ground bait) and boats (i.e. biocides). A simple lake model was developed within the SAGIS framework to estimate chemical input loads from rivers, local catchments and within lake sources and to simulate within lake concentrations. Input loads are also calculated for chemical loads to estuaries and coastal water. The SAGIS databases and visualisation tools were modified to include updated source apportionment information for lakes, transitional waters and coastal water bodies to support river basin planning and wider environmental management.
The main report presents the outline methodologies used for the SAGIS-LaTraC tool and an example from the upgraded tool with Appendix A providing a user guide for the SAGIS-LaTraC tool. The methodologies in the main report are expanded in Appendix B to give further information on the methods used to generate input loads for the model and simulate chemical concentrations and loads. The validation report, Appendix C, presents a comparison of model outputs with observed data and outputs from the QUEST estuary model.
Waste Water Re- use
Ref: 98/WW/09/1 Price: £15
ISBN: 1 84057 135 7
Recycling and reuse of wastewater is reviewed. Four key applications for reuse of recovered water are identified: (a) domestic, (b) irrigation, (c) aquifer recharge, and (d) industrial. These applications are discussed in turn, with reference to required water quality and preferred technologies. Key data from individual papers are appended.