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Published 11/05/2020

Cryptosporidium: Enhancing the Water Industry’s Capability to Respond (20/DW/06/22)

Cryptosporidium causes outbreaks of diarrhoeal disease and can be transmitted in drinking water. Not all species of Cryptosporidium infect people; by “genotyping”, we can identify which species are present. We have developed and validated a Polymerase Chain Reaction-based assay to characterise Cryptosporidium oocysts present, even in very low numbers (< 5), on microscope slides from water testing laboratories.

Improved typeability has been achieved for very low numbers of oocysts that will inform operational management activities (catchment characterisation) and investigations where water quality may be at risk.

We have produced written guidance for water testing laboratories, which includes improved communication, managing expectations, a new submission form and clarification of responsibilities of both the service users and the Cryptosporidium Reference Unit

The main benefit of this work will be improved industry response to Cryptosporidium detections and the management of events.



ISBN: 978-1-84057-890-4

Published 04/05/2020

Understanding the balance between customer use, supply pipe leakage & plumbing losses in water delivered to household properties (20/WM/08/72)

The aim of this project is to obtain a clearer understanding of the balance of customer use, plumbing losses and underground supply pipe losses in water delivered to customers and to provide an assessed plumbing loss value. In addition, we estimate the proportion of the water delivered to customers that could be attributed to internal plumbing losses and the proportion that could be attributed to underground supply pipe losses.

We find that average plumbing losses for unmeasured households are 1.4 +/-0.4 litres per property per hour (l/p/hr). Short lived but high flow rate continuous flows may add a further a 0.2 to 0.4 l/prop/hr. In some cases, this component may already be included in assessed night consumption.

The results of this study can be used to improve the measurement of total leakage by providing a country-wide average level of unmeasured household plumbing loss and guidance for carrying out company-specific plumbing loss assessments.



ISBN: 978-1-84057-886-7

Published 30/03/2020

Defining water poverty and evaluating existing information and approaches to reduce water poverty (20/CU/04/9)

A part of the English water industry’s Public Interest Commitment is to make bills affordable for all households with water and sewerage bills above 5% of their disposable income by 2030 and to develop a strategy to end water poverty. UKWIR has asked the ‘Big Question’ of how to achieve zero customers in water poverty by year 2030 to complement this commitment.

UKWIR has commissioned CEPA and Sustainability First to support these objectives through a research project focussing on the measurement of water poverty and on its alleviation. This study is not expected to answer the Big Question, but rather provides practical insights and recommendations to water companies as well as for consumer bodies, regulators, policymakers, and the water industry more widely, enabling the industry to take positive steps to address the challenge of water poverty.



ISBN: 978-1-84057-889-8

Published 24/02/2020

UKWIR’s Source Apportionment GIS Model (SAGIS): Research, Planning and Management (20/WW/02/11)

This project has enhanced the SAGIS-SIMCAT system through the development of new tools, methodologies, and intelligence that promote novel applications of SAGIS-SIMCAT to address key water industry challenges. Specifically, this project has enhanced the SAGIS-SIMCAT Decision Support Tool so that it can simultaneously evaluate the efficacy of measures to control inputs from both point and diffuse sources, thereby supporting catchment-based discharge permitting. This project has also scoped the development of a methodology for using SAGIS-SIMCAT to plan around the potential impacts to water quality arising from climate change, and the inclusion of Mains Water Leakage as an additional sector within SAGIS-SIMCAT. The project has served as a multi-stakeholder forum that has facilitated the dissemination, discussion and exchange of SAGIS-SIMCAT relevant knowledge and ideas.

This report is sold together with six other UKWIR reports;

  • UKWIR’s Source Apportionment GIS Model (SAGIS): Version 3.0 (19/WW/02/10)
  • Extending and Updating UKWIR's Pollution Source Apportionment Tool (2) (UKWIR Ref 18/WW/02/9)
  • Extending and Updating UKWIR's Source Apportionment Tool (UKWIR Ref 14/WW/02/8)
  • WFD Requirements for Lakes, Transitional and Coastal Waters: Source Apportionment for Nutrients and Priority Chemicals (UKWIR Ref 13/WW/02/4)
  • Chemical Source Apportionment under the WFD (UKWIR Ref 12/WW/02/3)
  • Chemical Source Apportionment under the WFD - Model Scoping Document (UKWIR Ref 10/WW/02/2)


ISBN: 978-1-84057-887-4

Published 03/02/2020

How do we halve our freshwater abstractions sustainably by 2050?: Research review and gap analysis (20/WR/02/13)

This report provides an initial roadmap, and an integrated portfolio of research projects. Together, these chart a programme of research to support the UK and Ireland water industry to deliver upon the UKWIR Board’s aspiration to halve freshwater abstraction sustainably by 2050. The assessments and recommendations presented in the report constitute the tangible outcomes from a relatively short research review and gap analysis project, as part of its ‘Big Questions’ (BQ) programme of strategic research. Ultimately, this report marks the start of a journey towards meeting the aspiration, and as such, the roadmap and supporting material are designed to be live, and reviewed over time. The main report (Part A), which contains the roadmap linked to 5 key Outcomes, is supported by summary project definitions (Part B), and a summary of the reviews and surveys completed as part of the project (Part C).



ISBN: 978-1-84057-885-0