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Available Reports: 800

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Published 07/08/2020

Impact of Customer-side Leakage Approaches (20/WM/08/73)

If companies wish to address and reduce customer-side losses they need an end-to-end strategy that encompasses external supply pipe leakage and internal wastage. The strategy must address both the identification of these losses and how they will be subsequently dealt with. It is the customer who is responsible for their supply pipe and plumbing so any drive by the water company to reduce those losses needs full customer buy-in and collaboration. Customer facing policies therefore need to be in place, clearly stating the approaches the company will take and level of support that will be provided to the customer. This report and accompanying modelling framework provide guidance on different approaches to customer-side losses, the associated costs and the benefits that can be achieved. Using the guidance presented, companies will be able to develop the most appropriate policies to address their own business needs as well as customer satisfaction.

ISBN: 978-1-84057-899-7

Published 04/08/2020

Ecological impact of other (non soluble reactive) phosphorus fractions (20/WW/20/9)

Phosphorus is an essential element for all life and is widely recognised as a key factor influencing the status of river and lake ecosystems. Much past research and monitoring work in these ecosystems has focused on an individual fraction of the total phosphorus pool, operationally termed soluble reactive phosphorus. However, an extremely wide range of non-soluble reactive forms of phosphorus may exist in fresh waters.

The objectives of this project were to -

  • provide an independent assessment of the state of research knowledge regarding non-soluble reactive forms of phosphorus in rivers and lakes;
  • identify key priorities for future research and monitoring work in this area;
  • and consider the potential for development of a typology system to describe the ecological impacts of non-soluble reactive forms of phosphorus in rivers and lakes across the United Kingdom.

ISBN: 978-1-84057-900-0

Published 03/08/2020

Understanding DBP formation: Interpretation of laboratory experiments to operational conditions (20/DW/13/5)

The objectives of this study were to demonstrate whether the findings from recent laboratory studies on disinfection by-product (DBP) formation apply to full scale water treatment processes, to understand the interaction between DBP formation and treatment process under works conditions and to gain knowledge on the impact of bromide and nitrogen in the formation of brominated HAAs and nitrogenous DBPs under works conditions. This was achieved through a set of seasonal sampling rounds across 8 water treatment works (WTW), each with different treatment processes (including coagulation, ion-exchange, granular activated carbon, membranes and advanced oxidation) and raw water quality (carbon, bromide, nitrogen, source type). The findings demonstrated a clear way forward for managing total regulatory and toxicological risk associated with DBPs for each WTW. The key message was that for some water sources attention should be given to the formation of brominated HAAs. Control of these DBPs may require an additional precursor removal stage or alternative management of disinfection processes.

ISBN: 978-1-84057-897-3

Published 16/07/2020

Application of dose-response data for assessing the health effects of exposure to faecal-oral pathogens through consumption of treated drinking water (20/DW/02/95)

The dose-response relation provides an understanding of the number of pathogens required to cause infection or illness in a susceptible host. This report provides a brief review of the data available and modelling approaches used to undertake such an assessment. Generally, data was limited and relied on studies undertaken with human volunteers, animal models and outbreaks and extrapolating the effects of low doses proved a particular challenge. The knowledge of pathogen dose-response relationships was not considered to be directly relevant to operational management of the microbiological safety of drinking water. Instead, these relationships are of importance to an effective quantitative microbial risk assessment that could be applied to specify log removal credits for water treatment to satisfy a health-based target.  

ISBN: 978-1-84057-898-0

Published 15/07/2020

Identification of treatment conditions which minimise DBP formation (20/TX/05/3)

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed from the reaction between an oxidative disinfectant (such as chlorine or ozone), and organic and inorganic precursor compounds, usually natural organic matter or bromide ions. This research sought to determine the relative importance of different DBPs and the factors that influence their formation, with the objective of developing a practical guide to assist water companies in managing DBPs. This was achieved through a literature review of toxicity data to establish a ranked list of priority DBPs. Extensive laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the influence of different treatment processes on precursor removal across five different chemical groups of DBPs (21 individual compounds) for different types of water source. Samples were also taken across drinking water treatment works to validate the laboratory results. The toxicity data was used to assess potential risk (the hazard index) and the relative importance of DBPs shown to change for different water sources and treatment processes. A limited number of DBPs were dominant in the overall assessment of hazard index. These were principally the haloacetic acids, specifically those that incorporated bromide into their structure. However, when present, the nitrogenous DBPs were also important. Guidance was developed on the operation of different treatment processes for minimisation of the priority DBPs.

ISBN: 978-1-84057-892-8