Water Reuse

Establishing a Robust Case for Final Effluent Reuse Phase 2: Testing the UK Regulatory Framework

Reference: 15/WR/29/4
ISBN: 184057 768 1
Published Date: 04/06/2015

The option to augment water supplies by intentionally reusing final treated effluent has moved into mainstream thinking within the UK, evidenced by inclusion within 2014 Water Resource Management Plans, and influenced by reuse activity around the world and European activity promoting uptake of reuse across the member states. The challenge now is to examine the barriers and opportunities to make reuse a more attractive option.

It is essential to understand how reuse schemes could be regulated. Phase 1 examined the case for reuse in the UK by identifying the associated risks and various approaches that have been taken around the world to regulate reuse schemes. This study has focused on identifying the key receptors that could be vulnerable to gaps or other weaknesses in the regulatory framework and the types of risk that could arise.

Price: £250  

Establishing a Robust Case for Final Effluent Reuse - An Evidence Base

Reference: 14/WR/29/3
ISBN: 1 84057 725 8
Published Date: 27/05/2014

Treated effluent is widely re-used as a resource for agricultural irrigation, urban non-potable use, industrial use and drinking water supplies around the world. Water stress and environmental regulations in the UK are driving UK water companies to consider reuse as a strategic supply option and so require evidence on the array of risks and opportunities this brings.
This study examines evidence from over 200 relevant case studies of both successful and abandoned treated effluent reuse projects. Real (and perceived) risks associated with different reuse scenarios are identified considering their applicability in the UK. Risk to human health is a primary concern, closely followed by the risks to the environment from changes in water flow and composition.
This report sets out existing frameworks for managing and mitigating risk, governance issues, and the factors that influence the energy and carbon demands of reuse systems as well as the cost implications.

Price: £250  

Framework for Developing Water Reuse Criteria with Reference to Drinking Water Supplies

Reference: 05/WR/29/1
ISBN: 1 84057 368 6
Published Date: 10/01/2005

Reclaimed water, obtained by the appropriate treatment of wastewater, is a valuable resource that can be deployed by water utilities to augment drinking water supplies through indirect potable reuse or substitution.  The objective of this study was to develop a framework that offers water suppliers the likelihood of more widespread acceptance of the common practice of using treated and blended wastewater as a raw water source to be treated for drinking water and as a replacement for current uses of drinking water.


The framework provides a consistent basis for the development of appropriate and verifiable standards and guidelines at local, regional and national levels.  It incorporates the latest principles of risk management and risk assessment based on pathway/risk endpoint.  The framework takes into account fully the increasing role of stakeholders and the need for reassurance regarding human and ecosystem health.


The report sets out a high level framework that may be used as a road map to define the key issues and data requirements of a potential application for reclaimed water.  Underpinning the high level framework is a series of models that address in more detail the steps entailed when evaluating specific reuse applications.  Case studies are used to illustrate how the framework may be applied when reuse schemes are developed and implemented.

Price: £16