Water Resources 

Drought Vulnerability Framework

Reference: 17/WR/02/12
ISBN: 1 84057 846 7
Published Date: 18/12/2017

The Drought Vulnerability Framework (DVF) provides a framework of methodologies to enable water companies to better understand the vulnerabilities of their water resource zones to drought.  It builds on the concept of the Drought Response Surface (DRS) originally derived for the Environment Agency ‘Understanding the Performance of Water Supply Systems during Mild to Extreme Droughts’ study (report Ref SC120048/R).  The DVF has used case study examples as a proof of methodology across the range of available data and behavioural models that currently exist within WRZs in England and Wales, to calculate the required inputs to the DRS.  The DRS contains information about drought response and risk to provide companies and stakeholders with a more comprehensive understanding of system resilience to droughts of different durations, in a consistent format. It also highlights critical drought durations for a given WRZ and provides an indication of potential periods of ‘failure’ under droughts of different durations and severities.

The URL for the drought response surface tool is:

This report can be downloaded free of charge here

Price: £35  

Future estimation of unmeasured household consumption

Reference: 17/WR/01/16
ISBN: 1 84057 830 0
Published Date: 13/07/2017

A robust estimate of the unmeasured household consumption is an essential component of Water Resource Management Plans, Business Plans and annual reporting.  As domestic revenue meter penetration increases, unmeasured household monitors are becoming more difficult to maintain.  The report’s objective was to identify suitable methods for the estimation of unmeasured consumption in the future.

The current best practice guidance has been reviewed, and in its current form does not contain sufficient guidance to allow companies to adapt their existing monitors to the changing level of metered properties.

Seven potential options for estimating the unmeasured household consumption have been identified that are suitable for circumstances where meter penetration is increasing.  These are all described in the report, and allow companies to develop a reducing cost solution to estimate unmeasured household consumption.

The report contains several recommendations where existing evidence and guidance needs to be strengthened or explored further. 

Price: £200  

Integration of behavioural change into demand forecasting and water efficiency practices

Reference: 16/WR/01/15
ISBN: 1 84057 824 6
Published Date: 19/10/2016

This project investigated the way customers use water and the effect that behaviours, practices and habits have on demand for water and how understanding these behaviours could improve efforts to reduce household water use.

Project data was collected by surveying 1000 customers, then logging a sample of 62 properties at high resolution to determine their microcomponents of water use. These data enabled the development of a statistical model which explains about 50% of the variation in household demand. The work was supported by a literature review as well as consultation with water companies on their current approaches to gathering customer data.

Guidance is provided in a proposed framework for including behavioural factors in demand forecasts, which is consistent with the WRMP19 guidance on household consumption forecasts. The project also provides best practice guidance for customer surveys, giving companies a method for collecting consistent (and comparable) household data from customer surveys. Guidance for targeting water efficiency activities at different groups of customers based on sub-daily water use behaviour is also provided.

Price: £450  

Establishing a Robust Case for Final Effluent Reuse Phase 2: Testing the UK Regulatory Framework

Reference: 15/WR/29/4
ISBN: 184057 768 1
Published Date: 04/06/2015

The option to augment water supplies by intentionally reusing final treated effluent has moved into mainstream thinking within the UK, evidenced by inclusion within 2014 Water Resource Management Plans, and influenced by reuse activity around the world and European activity promoting uptake of reuse across the member states. The challenge now is to examine the barriers and opportunities to make reuse a more attractive option.

It is essential to understand how reuse schemes could be regulated. Phase 1 examined the case for reuse in the UK by identifying the associated risks and various approaches that have been taken around the world to regulate reuse schemes. This study has focused on identifying the key receptors that could be vulnerable to gaps or other weaknesses in the regulatory framework and the types of risk that could arise.

Price: £20