Microbiological Studies

Viruses in Groundwater

Reference: 18/DW/02/89
ISBN: 1 84057 861 0
Published Date: 16/10/2018

Increasing attention is being given to the presence of viruses in groundwater. Whilst there have been a few well documented outbreaks, it has been suggested that viruses may also contribute to a low level of sporadic illness in communities served by groundwater supplies. This review assesses the evidence for the occurrence of viruses in groundwater and the associated health risk. It also considers the various routes of contamination and examines factors known to influence virus fate and behaviour in the underground environment. The adoption of a multiple barrier approach, which combines the benefits of source protection and effective disinfection, is seen as an effective strategy to minimise the risk posed by viruses in groundwater This approach can be strengthened by developing a sanitary survey that provides a rigorous and numeric site-specific risk assessment.

Price: £100  

Cryptosporidium spp. in animal hosts with potential for impacting on sources of drinking water in the UK

Reference: 17/DW/02/85
ISBN: 1 84057 844 0
Published Date: 02/10/2017

Over recent years, an increasing number of new species of Cryptosporidium have been discovered from a range of different animal hosts and molecular methods have greatly improved our knowledge of the public health significance posed by those species recognised. Research has shown that many species are not confined to a single host and that variation in pathogenicity exists within species known to infect humans. In light of these developments, this special topic review was undertaken to provide water companies with a current understanding of risks posed by this organism. It will permit more accurate sanitary surveys for identifying catchment control measures to reduce the risk from Cryptosporidium and the burden on water treatment.

Price: £100  

Invasive and Non-Native Species (INNS) Implications on the Water Industry

Reference: 16/DW/02/82
ISBN: 1 84057 826 2
Published Date: 26/10/2016

In light of new legislation, including the Infrastructure Act 2015, surrounding the control and management of Invasive Non-Native Species (INNS), this UKWIR project has assessed the potential obligations for the UK water industry and their role in meeting legal and social requirements.

Predictions of the likely INNS species threat for 10 INNS species over the period 2015-50 were compiled, together with a catalogue of management measures. Overall five key actions were identified, to support manage and aid compliance, these were: the development of INNS pathway management plans; the integration of companywide biosecurity policies into business as usual operations including supply chain management; the delivery of preventative surveillance monitoring programmes; the provision of appropriate wash down facilities; and continuous targeted stakeholder engagement.

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Price: £20