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Endocrine Disrupters - Waste Waters and Sludge

Assessment of the Performance of Wastewater Treatment Works in Removing Oestrogenic Substances

Reference: 10/TX/04/17
ISBN: 1 84057 562 X
Published Date: 24/06/2010

The National Demonstration Programme(NDP) has been established to further an understanding of how current and advanced treatment processes used at wastewater treatment works affect the concentration of certain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This project has undertaken the co-ordination of the NDP investigations, the establishment of quality control procedures for data collection and the interpretation and reporting of the results obtained. The study has shown that, where adequate receiving water dilution is available, EDC removal by conventional nitrifying treatment processes is sufficient to meet tentative predicted no-effect concentrations for the substances of concern. Where adequate dilution is not available, more advanced tratment may be required but this would result in significant additional cost and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Of the three advanced treatment processes investigated (oxidation using ozone or chlorine dioxide, or adsorption using granular activated carbon), the most cost effective was found to be ozone at a dose of 1 mg/l.

Price: £50  

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals National Demonstration Programme: Assessment of the Performance of WwTW in Removing Oestrogenic Substances

Reference: 09/TX/04/16
ISBN: 1 84057 525 5
Published Date: 18/02/2009

The feminisation of wild fish (termed 'intersex') has been associated with elevated concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in some wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents. To further an understanding of how current WwTW processes affect treated effluent EDC concentration, a National Demonstration Programme (NDP), managed by UKWIR, has been undertaken collaboratively by all 10 water and sewerage companies in England and Wales and the Environment Agency.
The NDP consists of two elements; the investigation of new or advances treatment processes aimed at achieving high standards of EDC removal; and the investigation of EDC removal by extensive monitoring at fourteen wastewater treatment works.
This project has been concerned with providing technical and logistical support to the monitoring of the fourteen sites. The report contains an extensive body of robust data regarding the occurrence, treatment and release of EDCs from conventional WwTW.

Price: £50  

Endocrine Disrupters: A Review of the Science Underpinning the ED Research Programme

Reference: 06/TX/04/13
ISBN: 1 84057 412 7
Published Date: 28/06/2006

There is increasing evidence of a causal link between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and aquatic effects, particularly on individual fish.  However, there are few data to substantiate any population-level effects on aquatic communities.  This review investigates the effects of wastewaters discharges on aquatic ecosystems, with a focus on fish populations.
There is good evidence that both natural and anthropogenic EDCs occur in the environment at concentrations sufficient to promote effects in individual fish.  However, not all fish species react in the same way and not all wastewaters produce the same response. Evidence is emerging of reproductive effects in severely intersexed fish, which usually form a very small proportion of the total population.  This may explain why there is no clear evidence of population-level effects in fish populations in the UK.
The possibility of both acute localised effects of EDCs on aquatic communities and chronic effects over the longer term should not be discounted.  Impacts on the individual are recognised, although the significance for wider populations remains to be determined.  Further field-based experiments are recommended to provide evidence from which to formulate appropriate policy and practical responses.

Price: £200