UK WATER INDUSTRY RESEARCH

 

Drinking Water Quality & Health 

Significance of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistant Genes in Drinking Water

Reference: 19/DW/02/92
ISBN: 978-1-84057-870-6
Published Date: 05/06/2019

Significance of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes in drinking water

There is increasing awareness about the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) in the environment and the risks posed to drinking water. Some studies have demonstrated that sources of drinking water are vulnerable to contamination by ARB and ARG. Water treatment has been found to form an effective barrier for the elimination of ARB, but ARG were eliminated less efficiently. Evidence also exists for the occurrence of both ARB and ARG in distribution systems. However, most of the information comes from studies outside the UK where patterns of antibiotic usage may not be the same as in the UK. On the basis of the information available, there is no evidence to indicate that consumption of drinking water would represent a significant route for the transmission of ARB or ARG.

Price: £100  

UKWIR Support for EC Aquavalens project

Reference: 18/DW/02/88
ISBN: 1 84057 860 2
Published Date: 16/10/2018

This report describes the work undertaken on the Aquavalens project funded by the European Commission. The project aimed to develop suitable techniques for the recovery of target microorganisms from large volumes of water and suitable molecular methods based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the detection of waterborne pathogens in large and small water supply systems and water used for food production. A number of promising techniques developed and validated in the early stages of the project were trialled at a number of locations in Europe including a water supply in the UK. The performance of the methods was found to vary with the type of organism being examined and the source of water. It was concluded that further methodological refinements would be necessary to develop robust techniques for pathogen detection particularly in sources of drinking water. Techniques were also developed for microbial source tracking and online bacteriological monitoring devices were evaluated.

Price: £200  

Viruses in Groundwater

Reference: 18/DW/02/89
ISBN: 1 84057 861 0
Published Date: 16/10/2018

Increasing attention is being given to the presence of viruses in groundwater. Whilst there have been a few well documented outbreaks, it has been suggested that viruses may also contribute to a low level of sporadic illness in communities served by groundwater supplies. This review assesses the evidence for the occurrence of viruses in groundwater and the associated health risk. It also considers the various routes of contamination and examines factors known to influence virus fate and behaviour in the underground environment. The adoption of a multiple barrier approach, which combines the benefits of source protection and effective disinfection, is seen as an effective strategy to minimise the risk posed by viruses in groundwater This approach can be strengthened by developing a sanitary survey that provides a rigorous and numeric site-specific risk assessment.

Price: £100  

Cryptosporidium spp. in animal hosts with potential for impacting on sources of drinking water in the UK

Reference: 17/DW/02/85
ISBN: 1 84057 844 0
Published Date: 02/10/2017

Over recent years, an increasing number of new species of Cryptosporidium have been discovered from a range of different animal hosts and molecular methods have greatly improved our knowledge of the public health significance posed by those species recognised. Research has shown that many species are not confined to a single host and that variation in pathogenicity exists within species known to infect humans. In light of these developments, this special topic review was undertaken to provide water companies with a current understanding of risks posed by this organism. It will permit more accurate sanitary surveys for identifying catchment control measures to reduce the risk from Cryptosporidium and the burden on water treatment.

Price: £100