Drinking Water Quality & Health 

Customer taps and their influence on water quality

Reference: 16/DW/04/18
ISBN: 1 84057 816 5
Published Date: 12/04/2022

Water companies suspect that microbiological and metal water quality failures are increasingly attributable to the changing design and functionality of kitchen taps and their ancillary fittings. The past 10 year’s annual reports from the UK regulators, published literature and unpublished data from water companies on taps and their effects on water quality were reviewed. Links between tap design and water quality failures were established and a tap classification developed to enable water companies to better capture data whilst conducting sampling. The report sets out guidance on a range of measures to reduce the risk of contamination of drinking water and water sample failures from kitchen taps. Some are within the control of water companies and some require collaboration with other stakeholders.

Price: £450  

Can passive sampling devices provide more useful data than discrete samples?

Reference: 15/DW/14/13
ISBN: 1 84057 803 3
Published Date: 12/04/2022

Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) are devices that can be used to monitor both organic and inorganic compounds. They typically contain a receiving phase with a high affinity for the compound of interest, are usually deployed for a few weeks, retrieved and analysed for the compound of interest. The project has collated information from manufacturers, suppliers and users on available PSDs and their current use.

The conclusion was that there is a clear potential for the use of passive samplers of the integrating type for monitoring of both inorganic and organic compounds. PSDs are potentially most useful:

*for long-term trend monitoring;
*for investigative work tracing a source of pollution; and
*to be used instead of biota in environmental monitoring.

Price: £150  

Maximising the safe return of recovered process water

Reference: 21/DW/02/100
ISBN: 978-1-84057-930-7
Published Date: 15/12/2021

Cryptosporidium oocysts and viruses present in drinking water supplies pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. Presence of emerging contaminants such as microplastics is also an area of growing concern for the water industry, regulators, governments, and consumers. The aim of this study was to facilitate maximising the safe recycling of recovered process water streams at WTWs. This goal was achieved through delivering:

  • A detailed review of the best available techniques (BAT) to detect, monitor and remove Cryptosporidium, viruses and microplastics from recovered process water streams.
  • A gap analysis of the expert reports by Badenoch and Bouchier to highlight monitoring, treatment and control advancements made since 1998.
  • Expert recommendations for systematic minimisation of operational and control risks associated with the safe recycling of recovered process water at WTWs, and
  • A cost-quality model, to assist water companies with treatment technology comparison and selection for recovered process water treatment and recycling.

Price: £21  

Understanding the chemistry and control of lead

Reference: 21/DW/13/10
ISBN: 978-1-84057-931-4
Published Date: 15/12/2021

Lead in tap water continues to be an important issue for UK water utilities. However, the mechanisms of lead release from lead water pipes are not well understood. This study investigated the structure of the mineral scale on lead water pipes from customer properties and lead pipe rigs that had been exposed to phosphate dosed tap waters. A total of 51 pipes from 10 water utilities were investigated. The techniques included infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The study revealed new insights into the way in which lead is released from lead water pipes and provided more information about how phosphate works and its efficacy. However, there are still many areas that remain unexplained. The subject is more complex than originally thought and therefore, more research is needed before recommendations can be made that will reduce the concentration of lead.

Price: £29