Alternative uses

Exploring attitudes and perceived barriers to the use / recycling of biodegradable products containing sewage sludge

Reference: 15/SL/13/5
ISBN: 1 84057 796 7
Published Date: 17/12/2015

Sewage sludge is one of a number of biodegradable organic wastes produced in significant quantities in the UK. These wastes contain valuable nutrients and as a result, products derived from these materials are widely used as fertilisers and soil improvers for assisting plant growth. However, there are barriers to combining and treating sewage sludge with other organic materials to produce biodegradable products containing sewage sludge (BiPS).

The aims of this project were to identify and understand the barriers to the use of BiPS by investigating BiPS products and markets available around the world, their associated hazards and risks and how these have influenced the development of relevant regulations and standards. Perceptions are a very important factor in determining how BiPS is used so the project also sought to understand the perceptions and attitudes to the management and use of BiPS of key stakeholders as well as the general public.

To address the barriers to the use of BiPS in the UK the water industry needs to work closely with stakeholders to explore how to change the regulatory landscape, possibly by establishing product quality standards for different end uses, underpinned by ongoing research into potential hazards in order to provide widespread confidence. The public is generally unaware of the use of sewage sludge and BiPS and further research is required to provide a better understanding of the extent and strength of their views.

Price: £16  

Determining Energy Yield from Various Co-digestible Wastes

Reference: 11/SL/13/4
ISBN: 1 84057 601 4
Published Date: 25/07/2011

WaSCs are currently uncertain about how to progress co-digestion schemes because of doubts over waste availability, gas yield and allowable business models.
This work screened a large number of potential organic wastes and then carried out a more detailed laboratory study on the digestibility of animal by-product residues, fat-trap materials, food wastes and green wastes. The results are presented in the report.
A competitive 'market' is developing for organic wastes and any gate fee available will vary both geographically and in the nature of the waste involved. Co-digestion making use of existing assets has the potential to provide a low capital cost, environmentally sound recycling route.
Ofwat is currently developing its policy on co-digestion and similar achemes and WaSCs need, for now, to discuss options for individual schemes with the regulator. These potential options are discussed in the report.

Price: £18  

Uses for CO2 in Biogas Produced from Anaerobic Digestion - Summary Report

Reference: 11/SL/13/2
ISBN: 1 84057 593 X
Published Date: 06/06/2011

The CO2 content of the biogas produced during wastewater treatment is not counted as emissions under normal carbon accounting rules. A key objective of this project was to identify methods for capturing, separating and using CO2 from biogas. The methods identified are based on established technologies used for the upgrading of biogas. A wide range of offsite and onsite uses for CO2 was identified, with a low or negative market value for CO2, whilst onsite uses were more cost effective than the offsite uses.
Another objective was to understand how much the industry can reduce its carbon footprint. The main sources of CO2 emission; sludge incineration, biogas generation, the post-combustion of biogas and the biogenic emission of CO2 from aerobic treatment, account for almost 40% of the total CO2 emissions from the industry. The findings of this project will assist decision making in targeting efforts to mitigate CO2 emissions.
Sold as a set with 11/SL/13/3 (attached on CD).

Price: £17