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Algal Toxins

A Status Report on Algal Toxins & Water Treatment

Reference: 00/DW/07/6
ISBN: 1 84057 209 4
Published Date: 17/04/2002

The objectives of the report are to provide an update of papers published on the removal of algal toxins by water treatment, and to review the significance of toxins to water supplies worldwide through surveys in the UK and overseas. In general, papers published since 1995 serve to support the findings from work funded by FWR and UKWIR. The occurrence of algal toxins in recent years would appear to be regional or localised. Generally, UK companies have appropriate measures in place for monitoring and control, and are keeping pace with relevant developments. Dominant algal species and toxins vary between countries. Some countries appear to have implemented extensive programmes of research, often collaboratively. However, many countries have yet to identify whether algal toxins pose a threat to their water sources, and this may in part be due to lack of funding.

Price: £50  

Pilot Scale GAC Tests to Evaluate Toxin Removal

Reference: 96/DW/07/1
ISBN: 1 84057 059 8
Published Date: 17/04/2002

Blooms of blue- green algae on reservoirs can give rise to the production of toxins that may contaminate freshwaters. There is a potential risk of the toxins entering drinking water supplies and posing a health risk to consumers. There is, therefore, a clear need to identify treatment processes for removing and treating toxin contaminated water. This report describes work which investigated the removal of anatoxin- a by pilot scale GAC (granular activated carbon) adsorbers, and assessed the importance of biodegration. It also investigated microcystin- LR removal, using higher concentrations than in a previous study. The report concludes that GAC filters are highly effective in removal of both toxins, and recommends a suitable contact time for complete removal.

Price: £50  

The Toxicity and Significance of Toxins from Blue- Green Algae

Reference: 96/DW/07/2
ISBN: 1 84057 007 5
Published Date: 17/04/2002

Blue- green algae are sometimes found in water supply reservoirs. Some algae produce toxins, and because of the possibility of these toxins reaching the customer's tap, it is appropriate to set limits for them in drinking water. In order to do this, it is necessary to know how toxic they are. This report reviews the data available on algal toxins, recommends limits for them in drinking water, and points to areas where more data is needed. The two main algal toxins of concern are microcystin- LR (a hepatoxin) and anatoxin- a (a neurotoxin). A limit of 1ug/ 1 for total microcystins, and 1ug/ 1 for anatoxin- a, were suggested as being appropriate to ensure that no adverse response occurs.

Price: £50