Relationships between Enterovirus, Salmonella and Bacterial Indicator Organisms in Bathing Waters
Monitoring data collected for various purposes from 1986 to 1999, from 6 different sources and 22 bathing waters, were analysed to assess the relationships between enteroviruses and salmonella, and indicator bacteria (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci). The data showed that within a single site there was no useful relationship between enterovirus and indicator bacteria and between sites it was week. There was a relationship between Salmonella and indicator bacteria within a site, although variable from one year to the next, and this was fairly strong between sites, season by season.
The findings are consistent with the interpretation that indicators show the presence of faecal matter and hence indicate the risk of enterovirus or Salmonella being present in bathing waters. The actual number of pathogens or faecal indicators will vary according to the tidal state, the water turbidity and weather conditions. A large number of samples, backed by standardised analysis using validated methods, would be needed to obtain reliable information on which policy decisions or alternative disposal strategies could be based. The low frequency monitoring programme to show compliance with the Bathing Waters Directive 1976 would be insufficient for this purpose.
|UKWIR Reference :- 02/WW/11/5||Published Date :- 02/12/2002|
|Retail Price (£) :- 100||ISBN :- 1-84057 275 2|
Supporting Material and Reports
| Relationship between Enterovirus and Bacterial Indicator Organisms in Bathing Waters|